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Hyderabad set to emerge as global hub for COVID-19 vaccine in 2021

The vaccine development process by Bharat Biotech, Biological E Ltd and Aurobindo Pharma are currently in various stages, while Dr Reddy's and Hetero have tie-ups for manufacturing the vaccine.

December 27, 2020 / 01:20 PM IST

As the world is set to brace for a new year amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the city is poised to emerge as a 'saviour' from the killer virus, with as many as five vaccine manufacturing firms based in Hyderabad racing to bring out an antidote.

The vaccine development process by Bharat Biotech, Biological E Ltd and Aurobindo Pharma are currently in various stages, while Dr Reddy's and Hetero have tie-ups for manufacturing the vaccine.

Some of these companies have also drawn up plans to scale up their vaccine manufacturing capacities.

Besides vaccine makers, the International Airport has also stepped up the cold-chain infrastructure for vaccine transportation.

GMR Hyderabad Air Cargo (GHAC is in talks with various stakeholders towards meeting specific requirements of export and import of COVID-19 vaccines.

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COVID-19 Vaccine

Frequently Asked Questions

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How does a vaccine work?

A vaccine works by mimicking a natural infection. A vaccine not only induces immune response to protect people from any future COVID-19 infection, but also helps quickly build herd immunity to put an end to the pandemic. Herd immunity occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population becomes immune to a disease, making the spread of disease from person to person unlikely. The good news is that SARS-CoV-2 virus has been fairly stable, which increases the viability of a vaccine.

How many types of vaccines are there?

There are broadly four types of vaccine — one, a vaccine based on the whole virus (this could be either inactivated, or an attenuated [weakened] virus vaccine); two, a non-replicating viral vector vaccine that uses a benign virus as vector that carries the antigen of SARS-CoV; three, nucleic-acid vaccines that have genetic material like DNA and RNA of antigens like spike protein given to a person, helping human cells decode genetic material and produce the vaccine; and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine.

What does it take to develop a vaccine of this kind?

Vaccine development is a long, complex process. Unlike drugs that are given to people with a diseased, vaccines are given to healthy people and also vulnerable sections such as children, pregnant women and the elderly. So rigorous tests are compulsory. History says that the fastest time it took to develop a vaccine is five years, but it usually takes double or sometimes triple that time.

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A recent visit of over 60 envoys to vaccine manufacturing facilities of Bharat Biotech and BE establishes the fact that the city will be in the forefront in making and supplying vaccines for COVID-19 which is rocking the world with over 77 million cases and nearly two million deaths as of now.

Udaya Bhaskar, director-general of Pharmexcil, a pharma exports promotion body under the department of commerce, said as there is no policy in place with regard to COVID-19 vaccine exports to other countries, it can be assumed that the centre may ensure that domestic requirement is fulfilled before allowing vaccine makers to export.

"All these vaccine makers, except Bharat Biotech, are having development or manufacturing tie-ups with foreign companies. We do not know the agreement details as to what quantity will be exported from India. However, the Indian Government has the final say in this

regard," Bhaskar said.

Telangana Director of Public Health G Srinivas Rao said though the companies are located in Hyderabad, the state will not get preference in vaccine allocation as it will be decided by the Centre.

The state has no role in vaccine allocation. It will be decided by the centre only. They will devise a method to allot the number of doses and states will get accordingly," the official told PTI.

The city's prominence accentuated after Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited a facility of Bharat Biotech Genome valley on November 28 and reviewed the progress of Covaxin, a vaccine candidate for COVID-19.

It is being developed by the company in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology and is now undergoing phase-3 trials.

Apart from Covaxin, BB is also in the process of coming out with a vaccine that would be intranasal.

Biological E Ltd has entered into an agreement with Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, part of pharma major Johnson& Johnson for the creation and enhancement of production capabilities to manufacture the latter's COVID-19 vaccine candidate, currently in Phase 1/2 of clinical trials.

International Finance Corporation, a member of the World Bank Group, recently announced a loan of up to USD 30 million (around ₹ 220 crore) to BE to support its expansion of low- priced, generic vaccines for routine immunisation of children and boost capacity to manufacture any future COVID-19 vaccine.

Aurobindo Pharma expects to commercialise its vaccine manufacturing facility in Hyderabad by April-May next year and is investing around ₹ 275 crore on the facility, which would be utilised to produce vaccines for the treatment of various viral diseases, including COVID-19.

A top official of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology had earlier said three CSIR labs CCMB-Hyderabad, Institute of Medical Technology, Chandigarh, and Indian Institute of Chemical Biology Kolkata, are developing vaccine candidates using different technology platforms.

Aurobindo will undertake clinical development and commercialization of the vaccines.

The company has also entered into an exclusive license agreement with Covaxx, a US-based company, to develop, commercialize and manufacture UB-612, the first Multitope Peptide-based vaccine to fight COVID-19, for India and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) agency.

Dr. Reddys Laboratories Ltd and Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) have already said they commenced adaptive phase 2/3 clinical trials for Sputnik V vaccine in India after receiving the necessary clearance from the Central Drugs Laboratory, Kasauli in Himachal.
In September 2020, Dr.Reddys and RDIF entered into a partnership to conduct clinical trials of Sputnik V vaccine and rights for distribution of the first 100 million doses in India.

Pharma major Hetero also has a tie-up with RDIF to manufacture over 100 million doses of Sputnik V per annum. The city-based firms also played a crucial role in providing bulk drugs and formulations for some of the prescribed medicines for COVID-19 like Remdesivir and Favipiravir.

Follow our full coverage of the coronavirus pandemic here.
PTI
first published: Dec 27, 2020 01:13 pm

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