COVID-19

Vaccine Watch

What you need to know about the vaccine’s manufacturing and pricing

Viswanath Pilla

Viswanath Pilla

VaccineWith almost a year since the first cases of COVID-19 outbreak were reported in Wuhan, China, the pandemic has left nearly 15.4 million dead and a rapid increasing count of positive cases. India has reported 9.7 million cases, and 1,40,573 deaths. The pandemic has caused deaths, destroyed lives and ravaged economies, including India’s, which is expected to contract by up to 9.5 percent. All this makes the development of a vaccine pertinent. How near are we to the development of a vaccine? What does it take to create one? Here is all what you need about the COVID-19 vaccine, its making and yes, pricing.

The Race For A

COVID-19 Vaccine

India

India

India
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • Bharat Biotech
  • Inactivated
  • Approved for restricted emergency use under clinical trial mode in India
  • Two doses (0, 28 days)
  • To be available shortly for frontline/healthcare workers
  • Rs 295 per dose for govt (excluding taxes)
  • Self funded
  • Zydus Cadila
  • DNA plasmid vaccine
  • Phase - 3
  • Three doses (0,28,56 days)
  • First half 2021
  • Not decided
  • Self funded
  • Serum Institute of India
  • Non-Replicating Viral Vector
  • Approved for restricted emergency use
  • Two doses (0, 28 days)
  • To be available shortly for frontline/healthcare workers
  • Rs 200 per dose for govt (excluding taxes)/ Rs 1000 per dose in private market
  • Self-funding, Gavi, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • SpyBiotech/Serum Institute of India
  • Virus Like Particles (VLP)
  • Phase - 1/2 (UK)
  • Two doses (0, 28 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • University of Oxford
  • DRL (Sputnik V)
  • Non-Replicating Viral Vector
  • Phase - 2/3
  • Two doses
  • Mid 2021
  • Less than $10 per dose
  • Self-funded
  • Biological E/Baylor College of Medicine (US)/Dynavax
  • Protein subunit
  • Phase - 1/2
  • Two doses
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Self-funded
  • Gennova Biopharmaceuticals/HDT Biotech Corporation
  • mRNA
  • Phase - 1/2
  • Two doses
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Seed funding from DBT-BIRAC
US

US

US
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • Moderna Therapeutics
  • mRNA
  • Approved for emergency use in US, EU, Canada, Israel
  • (0, 28 days)
  • Possible year end launch in US
  • $32- $37
  • US govt (Operation Warp Speed), CEPI
  • Pfizer/BioNTech
  • mRNA
  • Approved for emergency use in US, EU, UK & 21 other countries
  • (0, 28 days)
  • Not known
  • Around $19.5 per dose
  • Own funding.
  • Novavax
  • Protein Subunit/adjuvant
  • Phase 3
  • (0, 21 days)
  • First half of next year (through SII)
  • Less than Rs 250 per dose
  • US govt (Operation Warp Speed), CEPI, Gates Foundation
  • Inovio Pharmaceuticals
  • DNA Plasmid vaccine
  • Phase 2/3
  • (0, 28 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • US govt, CEPI
  • Janssen Pharmaceutical (Johnson & Johnson)
  • Non-Replicating Viral Vector
  • Phase 3
  • (0, 56 days)
  • Early next year (Biological E)
  • Not known
  • US govt (Operation Warp Speed), own funding
  • Arcturus/Duke-NUS
  • RNA
  • Phase 1/2
  • Single dose
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Self funded
  • Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation/NIAID/Dynavax
  • Protein Subunit
  • Phase-1
  • Two doses (0, 28 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Self funded
UK

UK

UK
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
  • Non-Replicating Viral Vector
  • Approved by for emergency use in UK, India & 3 other countries
  • Two doses
  • Available from January 1, 2021
  • Sold at no profit
  • CEPI, Self-funded
  • Imperial College London
  • RNA
  • Phase-1/2
  • Two doses
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • UK govt
  • Kentucky Bioprocessing (British American Tobacco)
  • Protein Subunit
  • Phase-1/2
  • Two doses (0, 21 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Self funded
EU

EU

EU
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • Sanofi Pasteur/GSK
  • Protein Subunit/adjuvant
  • Phase - 2
  • Two doses (0, 21 days)
  • First half of 2021, Sanofi has large manufacturing base in India
  • Not known
  • US govt (Operation Warp Speed), European Union
  • Curevac
  • RNA
  • Phase-2
  • Two doses (0, 28 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • CEPI, own funds
Russia

Russia

Russia
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • Gamaleya Research Institute/Russian Defence Ministry
  • Non-Replicating Viral Vector
  • Approved in Russia, Belarus, Argentina
  • Two doses (0, 21 days)
  • Approved in Russia, (In India through DRL)
  • Less than $10 per dose
  • RDIF
China

China

China
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • Sinovac
  • Inactivated
  • Approved for limited use in China
  • Two doses (0,14 days)
  • China
  • $14 per dose
  • Self funded,Chinese govt loans, Chinese PE firms
  • Sinopharm/Wuhan Institute of Biological Products
  • Inactivated
  • Approved for limited use in China, approved in UAE
  • Two doses (0,14 & 0,21 days)
  • China,UAE
  • less than $77 per dose
  • Chinese govt
  • Sinopharm/Beijing Institute of Biological Products
  • Inactivated
  • Approved for limited use in China, approved in UAE, Bahrain
  • Two doses (0,14 & 0,21 days)
  • China, UAE, Bahrain
  • Not known
  • Chinese govt
  • CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
  • Non-Replicating Viral Vector
  • Approved for limited use in China
  • Single dose
  • China
  • Not known
  • Chinese govt
  • Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical
  • Protein Subunit/adjuvant
  • Phase-2
  • Two-three doses (0,28 or 0,28,56 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Chinese govt
  • Institute of Medical Biology/Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
  • Inactivated
  • Phase-2
  • Two doses (0,28 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Chinese govt
  • Clover Biopharmaceuticals/GSK
  • Protein Subunit
  • Phase-2/3
  • Two doses (0, 21 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • CEPI, Self-funded
  • People\\\'s Liberation Army (PLA)/Walvax Biotech
  • RNA
  • Phase - 1
  • Two doses (0, 14 or 0, 28 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Chinese govt
Japan

Japan

Japan
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • Osaka University/Takara Bio/AnGes
  • DNA plasmid vaccine/Adjuvant
  • Phase 1/2
  • two doses (0,14 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Self funded
South Korea

South Korea

South Korea
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
Australia

Australia

Australia
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • University of Queensland/CSL/Seqirus
  • Protein Subunit/adjuvant
  • Phase-1
  • Two doses (0, 28 days)
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • CEPI
  • Vaxine Pty/Medytox
  • Protein Subunit/adjuvant
  • Phase-1
  • Single dose
  • Not known
  • Not known
  • Self funded
Canada

Canada

Canada
  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding
  • Medicago/GSK
  • Plant-based Virus like particle (VLP)/adjuvant
  • Phase 2/3
  • Two doses (0, 21 days)
  • Not known (end of 2021 in Canada)
  • Not known
  • Self funded

  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding

  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding

  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding

  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding

  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding

  • Novavax
  • Vaccine type
  • Development stage
  • Doses
  • India availability
  • Price
  • Funding

COVID-19 Vaccine Entrepreneurs

Adar Poonawalla

Adar Poonawalla

CEO
Serum Institute of India Ltd
Krishna Ella

Krishna Ella

Chairman
Bharat Biotech
Pankaj Patel

Pankaj Patel

Chairman
Zydus Cadila
Pascal Soriot

Pascal Soriot

CEO
AstraZeneca
Stephnen Bancel

Stephnen Bancel

CEO
Moderna Therapeutics
Adar Poonawalla, 39, is the second generation entrepreneur and CEO of Serum Institute of India, the world’s largest vaccine manufactuer by volumes. Poonawalla joined the Pune-based Serum in 2001, after graduating from the University of Westminster, London. Poonawalla focused on getting new products licensed and pre-qualified by the WHO . . .
supply to UN agencies and expanding . . . manufacturing footprint both organically and through acquisitions. Poonawalla’s father Cyrus Poonawalla, 79 the Founder-Chairman of SII, is the 12th richest man in India with networth of $11.8 billion, according to Forbes.

COVID-19 Vaccine By The Numbers

  • 51
    No. of potential vaccines that have entered the human testing phase
  • 13
    No. of potential vaccines that are in late-stage clinical trials
  • 40k
    Typical upper limit of subjects that the vaccine is tested on during Phase 3
  • 18
    Rough timeline of months expected for a COVID-19 vaccine to be developed
  • 03
    No. of phases through which a vaccine will be developed
  • 225
    Per dose prices of the COVID-19 vaccine that Serum Institute has
  • 80
    Typical upper limit of subjects that the vaccine is tested on during Phase 1

FAQs Frequently Asked Questions

A vaccine works by mimicking a natural infection. A vaccine not only induces immune response to protect people from any future COVID-19 infection, but also helps quickly build herd immunity to put an end to the pandemic. Herd immunity occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population becomes immune to a disease, making the spread of disease from person to person unlikely. The good news is that SARS-CoV-2 virus has been fairly stable, which increases the viability of a vaccine.
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