Economic Survey 2021’s Housing Index states that the improvement in access to housing has been disproportionately greater for the lowest income group when compared to the highest income group, thereby enhancing equity in access to housing, one of the ‘bare necessities’ such as water, sanitation, electricity and clean cooking fuel.
To measure the progress in the delivery of “the bare necessities”, the Survey develops a composite index called the Bare Necessities Index (BNI).
The BNI measures access to “the bare necessities” for households in rural areas, urban areas and at the all India level. These necessities are measured using 26 comparable indicators on five dimensions viz., water, sanitation, housing, micro-environment, and other facilities. The indicators used to capture the availability and quality of housing, access to a bathroom, kitchen, toilet, drinking water, waste discharge facilities, clean cooking fuel and disease-free environment.
Compared to 2012, access to “the bare necessities” has improved across all States in the country in 2018. Access to bare necessities is the highest in the states such as Kerala, Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat while it is the lowest in Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Tripura, says the Economic Survey.