A huge traffic jam blocked a major road out of Kyiv on Thursday as people tried to flee the capital after Russian forces invaded Ukraine, while others stood in long lines hoping to draw money and stock up on supplies.
Signs of nervousness were growing as planes flew overhead, explosions were heard and an emergency siren sounded early in the morning.
Even after weeks of warnings by Ukrainian and Western politicians that a Russian attack was imminent, some people were caught off guard in the city of around three million people.
"I didn't expect this. Until this morning I believed nothing would happen," said Nikita, a 34-year-old marketing specialist, as he waited in a long line at a supermarket with bottles of water piled high in his shopping cart.