All adults should do a minimum of 150 minutes of vigorous physical activity per week, even more vital for well-being and mental health in the COVID-19 era, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Wednesday in its first guidance in a decade.
It recommended that children and adolescents have an average of one hour of daily physical exercise and limit time in front of electronic screens.
And people of all ages must compensate for growing sedentary behaviour with physical activity to ward off disease and add years to their lives, the WHO said, launching its "Every Move Counts" campaign.
"Increasing physical activity not only helps prevent and manage heart disease, type-2 diabetes and cancer, it also reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, reduces cognitive decline including Alzheimer's and improves memory," Ruediger Krech, WHO director for health promotion, told a news briefing.
Yet one in four adults and a "staggering" four out of five adolescents do not get enough physical activity, which can include walking, cycling, gardening and cleaning, the WHO said.
Frequently Asked Questions
A vaccine works by mimicking a natural infection. A vaccine not only induces immune response to protect people from any future COVID-19 infection, but also helps quickly build herd immunity to put an end to the pandemic. Herd immunity occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population becomes immune to a disease, making the spread of disease from person to person unlikely. The good news is that SARS-CoV-2 virus has been fairly stable, which increases the viability of a vaccine.
There are broadly four types of vaccine — one, a vaccine based on the whole virus (this could be either inactivated, or an attenuated [weakened] virus vaccine); two, a non-replicating viral vector vaccine that uses a benign virus as vector that carries the antigen of SARS-CoV; three, nucleic-acid vaccines that have genetic material like DNA and RNA of antigens like spike protein given to a person, helping human cells decode genetic material and produce the vaccine; and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine.
Vaccine development is a long, complex process. Unlike drugs that are given to people with a diseased, vaccines are given to healthy people and also vulnerable sections such as children, pregnant women and the elderly. So rigorous tests are compulsory. History says that the fastest time it took to develop a vaccine is five years, but it usually takes double or sometimes triple that time.
"These guidelines emphasise what many are experiencing during the COVID restrictions that are applied all over the world. And that is that being active every day is good not only our bodies but also our mental health," said Fiona Bull, head of WHO's physical activity unit.
"Phone a friend and do classes online together, help your family members, do it as a family. And when you can, get outside," she said.
Research into the ill-effects of sedentary behaviour has grown in the past decade, leading to the new advice, Bull said.
"That is limit sedentary time, and do more activity to offset sedentary time, particularly for those who do long hours of sedentary, which includes a lot of people who have got office-based work environments," she said. "For children we also recommend they limit sedentary time, particularly screen time."
Pregnant women and postpartum mothers are now included in the recommendations of 150 to 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity per week for adults.
This brings health benefits for both the mother and baby, according to Juana Willumsen, a WHO technical officer. "For example there is a 30 percent reduction in gestational diabetes amongst women who are physically active during pregnancy," she said.
Adults above 65 are advised to add muscle strengthening and activities focusing on balance and coordination to help prevent falls later.
Devices worn on the wrist or hip that track physical activity are helpful for all, Bull said."Monitoring how active you are is very good feedback," she said. "That is important because we tend to think we might be more active. We tend to underestimate how much time we spend sedentary."