Last Updated : Nov 20, 2020 10:25 PM IST | Source: AP

75 years since historic Nuremberg trials began; who was tried and how

Seventy-five years ago, the dock of Courtroom 600 of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice was packed with some of the most nefarious figures of the 20th Century. They weren’t yet known as war criminals - it was a charge that didn’t exist until the Nuremberg trials that began on November 20, 1945

Associated Press
Seventy-five years ago, the dock of Courtroom 600 of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice was packed with some of the most nefarious figures of the 20th Century: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop and 18 other high-ranking Nazis. They weren’t yet known as war criminals - it was a charge that didn’t exist until the Nuremberg trials that began on November 20, 1945, in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law. The proceedings broke new ground in holding government leaders individually responsible for their aggression and slaughter of millions of innocents. Its legacy lives on in the International Criminal Court of today. The city of Nuremberg marked the anniversary in Courtroom 600 with a ceremony on November 20. Let’s take a look at the collection of pictures of the trials. From the archive. (Image: AP)

Seventy-five years ago, the dock of Courtroom 600 of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice was packed with some of the most nefarious figures of the 20th Century: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop and 18 other high-ranking Nazis. They weren’t yet known as war criminals - it was a charge that didn’t exist until the Nuremberg trials that began on November 20, 1945, in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law. The proceedings broke new ground in holding government leaders individually responsible for their aggression and slaughter of millions of innocents. Its legacy lives on in the International Criminal Court of today. The city of Nuremberg marked the anniversary in Courtroom 600 with a ceremony on November 20. Let’s take a look at the collection of pictures of the trials. From the archive. (Image: AP)

The cell block in the Nuremberg prison, Germany, on August 30, 1945, which housed war criminals awaiting trial. At the end is seen a boarded up section where important prisoners were housed. (Image: AP)

The cell block in the Nuremberg prison, Germany, on August 30, 1945, which housed war criminals awaiting trial. At the end is seen a boarded up section where important prisoners were housed. (Image: AP)

A general view of the prison, adjoining the courtroom at Nuremberg, Germany on August 31, 1945. Here major war criminals were housed during their trial. (Image: AP)

A general view of the prison, adjoining the courtroom at Nuremberg, Germany on August 31, 1945. Here major war criminals were housed during their trial. (Image: AP)

Interpreters and audio technicians work behind the scenes at the Nuremburg trials, in Nuremburg, Germany, November 18, 1945. (Image: AP)

Interpreters and audio technicians work behind the scenes at the Nuremburg trials, in Nuremburg, Germany, November 18, 1945. (Image: AP)

A general view of the courtroom during the first morning session in Nuremberg on November 20, 1945. In foreground, left, sit the defendants with a row of guards behind them and their counsel sitting in front of them. (Image: AP)

A general view of the courtroom during the first morning session in Nuremberg on November 20, 1945. In foreground, left, sit the defendants with a row of guards behind them and their counsel sitting in front of them. (Image: AP)

Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering stands in the prisoner's dock at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in Germany on November 21, 1945. He is entering a plea of not guilty to the International Military Tribunal Indictment. Goering is wearing headphones of the court translating system. (Image: AP)

Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering stands in the prisoner's dock at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in Germany on November 21, 1945. He is entering a plea of not guilty to the International Military Tribunal Indictment. Goering is wearing headphones of the court translating system. (Image: AP)

The Russian assistant prosecutor reads the indictment, (lower left) in Nuremberg, Germany on November 28, 1945. The American prosecutors sit at the centre table nearest the camera. Left is Justice Robert Jackson and, right, his assistant. Far, left, are the British prosecutors and far, right, the Russian. (Image: AP)

The Russian assistant prosecutor reads the indictment, (lower left) in Nuremberg, Germany on November 28, 1945. The American prosecutors sit at the centre table nearest the camera. Left is Justice Robert Jackson and, right, his assistant. Far, left, are the British prosecutors and far, right, the Russian. (Image: AP)

Former Foreign Minister of the German Reich, Dr. Konstantin von Neurath, right, and Julius Streicher eating their lunches from US American Army mess tins on a bare board table, in the Palace of Justice, in Nuremberg, Germany, November 29, 1945. Both are accused of crimes of war. (Image: AP)

Former Foreign Minister of the German Reich, Dr. Konstantin von Neurath, right, and Julius Streicher eating their lunches from US American Army mess tins on a bare board table, in the Palace of Justice, in Nuremberg, Germany, November 29, 1945. Both are accused of crimes of war. (Image: AP)

Defendant Alfred Jodl, former general and one of Adolf Hitler's close military advisers during World War II, is seen talking with his arms crossed on November 30, 1945. Jodl is at the proceedings at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in Nuremberg, Germany. (Image: AP)

Defendant Alfred Jodl, former general and one of Adolf Hitler's close military advisers during World War II, is seen talking with his arms crossed on November 30, 1945. Jodl is at the proceedings at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in Nuremberg, Germany. (Image: AP)

With Hermann Goering, left, getting the biggest laugh out of the proceeding, Nazi war criminals break out into laughter as evidence is introduced at Nuremberg, Germany on November 30, 1945. Even the American guards enjoy the ‘joke.’ In the front row of the prisoners’ box are, left to right: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim Von Ribbentrop and Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel. In the back row, left to right: Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, Baldur Von Schirach and Fritz Sauckel. (Image: AP)

With Hermann Goering, left, getting the biggest laugh out of the proceeding, Nazi war criminals break out into laughter as evidence is introduced at Nuremberg, Germany on November 30, 1945. Even the American guards enjoy the ‘joke.’ In the front row of the prisoners’ box are, left to right: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim Von Ribbentrop and Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel. In the back row, left to right: Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, Baldur Von Schirach and Fritz Sauckel. (Image: AP)

Former German Nazi SS-Brigadefuehrer and former head of foreign intelligence Walter Schellenberg is seen in the witness box on January 4, 1946 in Nuremberg, Germany during the war crime trials whilst giving evidence. (Image: AP)

Former German Nazi SS-Brigadefuehrer and former head of foreign intelligence Walter Schellenberg is seen in the witness box on January 4, 1946 in Nuremberg, Germany during the war crime trials whilst giving evidence. (Image: AP)

Rudolf Hess, right, has asked permission of the international military tribunal to be allowed to act as his own attorney “from now until the end of the trial.” He is discussing his application during a recess in the Nuremberg trial, with Goering, Ribbentrop and two lawyers on January 28, 1946. Goering appears to be taking a keen interest in the proceedings. (Image: AP)

Rudolf Hess, right, has asked permission of the international military tribunal to be allowed to act as his own attorney “from now until the end of the trial.” He is discussing his application during a recess in the Nuremberg trial, with Goering, Ribbentrop and two lawyers on January 28, 1946. Goering appears to be taking a keen interest in the proceedings. (Image: AP)

These coffins contain bodies of Nazis executed at Landsberg, Germany on May 28, 1946, in the first day of a two-day mass execution of 28 persons convicted last December of killing thousands of innocent victims by medical experiments, unleashing of hungry dogs, sadistic tortures, and malnutrition at Dachau concentration camp. Fourteen executions were carried out each day. (Image: AP)

These coffins contain bodies of Nazis executed at Landsberg, Germany on May 28, 1946, in the first day of a two-day mass execution of 28 persons convicted last December of killing thousands of innocent victims by medical experiments, unleashing of hungry dogs, sadistic tortures, and malnutrition at Dachau concentration camp. Fourteen executions were carried out each day. (Image: AP)

Simon Kiern, 32, former Nazi censor and block leader convicted at Dachau of kicking to death prisoner who had fallen to ground, is prepared to be hung by US military authorities at Landsberg, Germany on May 28, 1946. (Image: AP)

Simon Kiern, 32, former Nazi censor and block leader convicted at Dachau of kicking to death prisoner who had fallen to ground, is prepared to be hung by US military authorities at Landsberg, Germany on May 28, 1946. (Image: AP)

US military authorities prepare to hang Dr. Klaus Karl Schilling, 74, at Landsberg, Germany on May 28, 1946. In a Dachau war crimes trial he was convicted of using 1,200 concentration camp prisoners for malaria experimentation. Thirty died directly from the inoculations and 300 to 400 died later from complications of the disease. His experiments all with unwilling subjects began in 1942. (Image: AP)

US military authorities prepare to hang Dr. Klaus Karl Schilling, 74, at Landsberg, Germany on May 28, 1946. In a Dachau war crimes trial he was convicted of using 1,200 concentration camp prisoners for malaria experimentation. Thirty died directly from the inoculations and 300 to 400 died later from complications of the disease. His experiments all with unwilling subjects began in 1942. (Image: AP)

Albert Speer, Hitler's former architect and armament minister during WW II, a defendant in the war crimes trial at Nuremberg, Germany is pictured in court in Nuremberg, September 12, 1946. (Image: AP)

Albert Speer, Hitler's former architect and armament minister during WW II, a defendant in the war crimes trial at Nuremberg, Germany is pictured in court in Nuremberg, September 12, 1946. (Image: AP)

Members of the International Military Tribunal read the verdicts in the courtroom of the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg, Germany, on September 30, 1946. (Image: AP)

Members of the International Military Tribunal read the verdicts in the courtroom of the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg, Germany, on September 30, 1946. (Image: AP)

Hermann Goering, standing in foreground in the dock, makes his final plea during the latter stages of the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in the Justice Palace in Germany on October 1, 1946. Each defendant's name and sentences imposed by the International Tribunal is listed on this photograph. Rudolf Hess, who received a life sentence, is hidden behind Goering. The others in the front row, from left, are, Goering; Joachim von Ribbentrop; Wilhelm Keitel; Ernest Kaltenbrunner; Alfred Rosenberg; Frank, wearing dark glasses; Wilhelm Frick; Julius Streicher; and Walter Funk. Second row, from left, are, Karl Doenitz; Erich Raeder; Baldur von Schirach; Fritz Sauckel; Alfred Jodl; Franz von Papen; Arthur Seyss-Inquart; Albert Speer; Constantin von Neurath; Fritzsche; Schacht. (Image: AP)

Hermann Goering, standing in foreground in the dock, makes his final plea during the latter stages of the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in the Justice Palace in Germany on October 1, 1946. Each defendant's name and sentences imposed by the International Tribunal is listed on this photograph. Rudolf Hess, who received a life sentence, is hidden behind Goering. The others in the front row, from left, are, Goering; Joachim von Ribbentrop; Wilhelm Keitel; Ernest Kaltenbrunner; Alfred Rosenberg; Frank, wearing dark glasses; Wilhelm Frick; Julius Streicher; and Walter Funk. Second row, from left, are, Karl Doenitz; Erich Raeder; Baldur von Schirach; Fritz Sauckel; Alfred Jodl; Franz von Papen; Arthur Seyss-Inquart; Albert Speer; Constantin von Neurath; Fritzsche; Schacht. (Image: AP)

German Fieldmarshal Wilhelm Leeb, is pictured during the Nuremberg Trials, Case 12, as he reads the letter of accusations against himself and other high ranking German officers during WW II, in the courthouse in Nuremberg, Germany, November 11, 1947. (Image: AP)

German Fieldmarshal Wilhelm Leeb, is pictured during the Nuremberg Trials, Case 12, as he reads the letter of accusations against himself and other high ranking German officers during WW II, in the courthouse in Nuremberg, Germany, November 11, 1947. (Image: AP)

Defendant German Fieldmarshal Wilhelm Leeb pleads not guilty during the Nuremberg Trials, Case 12, in the courthouse in Nuremberg, Germany, at the opening of the case against himself and other high ranking German officers during WW II December 30, 1947. (Image: AP)

Defendant German Fieldmarshal Wilhelm Leeb pleads not guilty during the Nuremberg Trials, Case 12, in the courthouse in Nuremberg, Germany, at the opening of the case against himself and other high ranking German officers during WW II December 30, 1947. (Image: AP)

Hermann Schmitz, former chairman of the managing board of directors of the I.G. Farben Chemical Industries gives his final plea at the U.S. Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, June 11, 1948, concluding his defense with the statement: "My conscience is clear and I feel free from any fault." (Image: AP)

Hermann Schmitz, former chairman of the managing board of directors of the I.G. Farben Chemical Industries gives his final plea at the U.S. Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, June 11, 1948, concluding his defense with the statement: "My conscience is clear and I feel free from any fault." (Image: AP)

Director of the document section of the Nuremberg Trials, Fred Niebergall, receives a stack of papers from a German file clerk in one of the many rooms full of documents, in the Nuremberg Palace of Justice Building, Germany on June 16, 1948. Mr. Niebergall has been in charge of the trial documents since August 1945 before the trials started. Sixty-thousand documents are on file. (Image: AP)

Director of the document section of the Nuremberg Trials, Fred Niebergall, receives a stack of papers from a German file clerk in one of the many rooms full of documents, in the Nuremberg Palace of Justice Building, Germany on June 16, 1948. Mr. Niebergall has been in charge of the trial documents since August 1945 before the trials started. Sixty-thousand documents are on file. (Image: AP)

Otto Ambros, standing, listens to his verdict of eight years in prison by the U.S. Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, July 30, 1948. Ambros was chief of the chemical warfare Committee of the Ministry for Araments and War Production and manager of several of the I.G. Farben's plants, including the Auschwitz plant. (Image: AP)

Otto Ambros, standing, listens to his verdict of eight years in prison by the U.S. Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, July 30, 1948. Ambros was chief of the chemical warfare Committee of the Ministry for Araments and War Production and manager of several of the I.G. Farben's plants, including the Auschwitz plant. (Image: AP)

Defendant Gottlob Berger, former chief of the SS head office, is sentenced to 25 years imprisonment on April 14, 1949, flanked by Sgt. 1st class Thomas H. Andress from Palestine, Texas, member of the honor guard 16th inf., left, and a not identified honor guard in Nuremberg, Germany. (Image: AP)

Defendant Gottlob Berger, former chief of the SS head office, is sentenced to 25 years imprisonment on April 14, 1949, flanked by Sgt. 1st class Thomas H. Andress from Palestine, Texas, member of the honor guard 16th inf., left, and a not identified honor guard in Nuremberg, Germany. (Image: AP)

First Published on Nov 20, 2020 10:25 pm
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