The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) also detailed out the stages of vaccine development. Seven companies were given test license permission by CDSCO.
The Ministry of Heath on September 18 said that Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) has granted test license permission for the manufacturing of COVID-19 vaccine for pre-clinical test, examination and analysis to certain manufacturers in India, news agency ANI reported.
The manufacturers granted permission include, among others, the Serum Institute of India, Bharat Biotech International, Reliance Life Sciences and Aurobindo Pharma.
The CDSCO also informed that requirements and guidelines to conduct clinical trial or grant of permission for marketing of new drugs, including vaccines, have been prescribed under New Drugs and Clinical Trials Rules, 2019.
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) also laid out the stages of vaccine development.
Frequently Asked Questions
A vaccine works by mimicking a natural infection. A vaccine not only induces immune response to protect people from any future COVID-19 infection, but also helps quickly build herd immunity to put an end to the pandemic. Herd immunity occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population becomes immune to a disease, making the spread of disease from person to person unlikely. The good news is that SARS-CoV-2 virus has been fairly stable, which increases the viability of a vaccine.
There are broadly four types of vaccine — one, a vaccine based on the whole virus (this could be either inactivated, or an attenuated [weakened] virus vaccine); two, a non-replicating viral vector vaccine that uses a benign virus as vector that carries the antigen of SARS-CoV; three, nucleic-acid vaccines that have genetic material like DNA and RNA of antigens like spike protein given to a person, helping human cells decode genetic material and produce the vaccine; and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine.
Vaccine development is a long, complex process. Unlike drugs that are given to people with a diseased, vaccines are given to healthy people and also vulnerable sections such as children, pregnant women and the elderly. So rigorous tests are compulsory. History says that the fastest time it took to develop a vaccine is five years, but it usually takes double or sometimes triple that time.