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WHO plans slew of COVID-19 vaccine approvals for global rollout

COVAX, a global scheme co-led by the WHO, wants to deliver at least 2 billion COVID-19 doses across the world this year, with at least 1.3 billion going to poorer countries.

January 20, 2021 / 10:32 PM IST
World Health Organization

World Health Organization


The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to approve several COVID-19 vaccines from Western and Chinese manufacturers in the coming weeks and months, an internal document seen by Reuters shows, as it aims for rapid rollouts in poorer countries.

COVAX, a global scheme co-led by the WHO, wants to deliver at least 2 billion COVID-19 doses across the world this year, with at least 1.3 billion going to poorer countries.

But it has so far struggled to secure enough shots due to a shortage of funds, while wealthy nations have booked large volumes of vaccines for themselves.

In the race to deploy shots, regulatory approvals are key to confirming the effectiveness and safety of vaccines, and to boosting output. But some poorer countries rely mostly on WHO authorizations as they have limited regulatory capacity.

The WHO is therefore "expediting" emergency approvals, according to a COVAX internal document, which cites data updated to Jan. 7.

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COVID-19 Vaccine

Frequently Asked Questions

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How does a vaccine work?

A vaccine works by mimicking a natural infection. A vaccine not only induces immune response to protect people from any future COVID-19 infection, but also helps quickly build herd immunity to put an end to the pandemic. Herd immunity occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population becomes immune to a disease, making the spread of disease from person to person unlikely. The good news is that SARS-CoV-2 virus has been fairly stable, which increases the viability of a vaccine.

How many types of vaccines are there?

There are broadly four types of vaccine — one, a vaccine based on the whole virus (this could be either inactivated, or an attenuated [weakened] virus vaccine); two, a non-replicating viral vector vaccine that uses a benign virus as vector that carries the antigen of SARS-CoV; three, nucleic-acid vaccines that have genetic material like DNA and RNA of antigens like spike protein given to a person, helping human cells decode genetic material and produce the vaccine; and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine.

What does it take to develop a vaccine of this kind?

Vaccine development is a long, complex process. Unlike drugs that are given to people with a diseased, vaccines are given to healthy people and also vulnerable sections such as children, pregnant women and the elderly. So rigorous tests are compulsory. History says that the fastest time it took to develop a vaccine is five years, but it usually takes double or sometimes triple that time.

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The COVID-19 vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and manufactured by the Serum Institute of India (SII) could be authorized by the WHO in January or February, the document says.

The same vaccine produced in South Korea by SK Bioscience could be approved by the U.N. agency at the end of February, at the earliest, the document says.

As well as vaccines, regulators usually authorise their manufacturing processes in different plants.

SII chief executive Adar Poonawalla told Reuters last week he expected WHO approval "in the next week or two".

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AstraZeneca and the WHO did not respond to requests for comment.

SK said it was not aware of the WHO's approval timeline.

The AstraZeneca vaccine, developed with Oxford University, has already been given emergency approval in Britain, while decisions in the European Union and the United States are close.

COVAX has supply contracts with AstraZeneca and SII for about 400 million doses and a non-binding deal for many more hundreds of millions, although the timing of possible deliveries is uncertain.

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OTHER WESTERN SHOTS

The WHO authorised the vaccine developed by Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech at the end of December.

WHO officials have said they are seeking a supply deal with the U.S. pharmaceutical giant, which has already committed hundreds of millions of doses this year to several wealthy nations.

COVAX had not initially included the Pfizer/BioNTech shot in its shortlist for advance purchases.

Pfizer did not respond to a request for comment on whether a deal was close and whether it would involve only a limited number of doses this year.

The COVAX document also shows the WHO is expected to approve Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine, which is based on the same messenger RNA (mRNA) technology as Pfizer's, at the end of February.

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Moderna, whose vaccine is already approved in many Western countries including in the United States and the European Union, had no immediate comment.

The vaccine developed by Johnson & Johnson (J&J), which has a non-binding agreement to supply COVAX with 500 million doses over an unspecified timeframe, is expected to get WHO approval in May or June at the earliest, the COVAX document says.

J&J has not yet published results of its vaccine's Phase III clinical trials, but the EU has said it expects the company to apply for approval as early as February.

A J&J spokesman did not respond to a request for comment.

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CHINA AND RUSSIA

The WHO is also considering possible quick approvals for two Chinese vaccines, the document shows.

Sinopharm and Sinovac have filed their applications with the WHO, which is reviewing them and could make decisions on both in March at the earliest, it says.

Neither vaccine was shortlisted by the WHO for possible advance purchase deals. WHO approval does not automatically lead to purchases by COVAX. It could also facilitate the rollout in poorer countries that acquire the vaccines directly.

Sinopharm has filed applications for two COVID-19 vaccines, but the possible March approval concerns only the one developed by its Beijing-based affiliate, Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd (BIBP), which has already been widely used for inoculations in China.

Sinovac has yet to release global results of its Phase III trials, but its vaccine has been approved for emergency use in countries including Brazil, Indonesia and Turkey.

Sinopharm and Sinovac did not respond to requests for comment.

There is no provisional timetable yet for the possible approval of Russia's Sputnik V vaccine, despite its developers having filed the relevant documentation, the document shows.

The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), the main financial backer of Sputnik V, did not respond to a request for comment.

Also Read: India's COVID-19 vaccine: Who'll get it, when and how - All you need to know
Reuters
first published: Jan 20, 2021 10:32 pm

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