US President Donald Trump's surprise opposition to emergency coronavirus aid and annual government funding passed by Congress has left Americans and global financial markets wondering whether Washington will iron out its differences or descend into chaos in the coming days.
Trump has not yet said whether he will veto the $892 billion for COVID-19 relief that is coupled with $1.4 trillion to fund an array of federal agencies through next September.
Here's how this standoff could play out:
TRUMP BACKS DOWN
Trump signs the 5,500-page bill, despite Congress' refusal so far to meet his demands. He wants far larger coronavirus relief checks for Americans and major reductions to the foreign aid budget and other spending he has deemed wasteful.
Frequently Asked Questions
A vaccine works by mimicking a natural infection. A vaccine not only induces immune response to protect people from any future COVID-19 infection, but also helps quickly build herd immunity to put an end to the pandemic. Herd immunity occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population becomes immune to a disease, making the spread of disease from person to person unlikely. The good news is that SARS-CoV-2 virus has been fairly stable, which increases the viability of a vaccine.
There are broadly four types of vaccine — one, a vaccine based on the whole virus (this could be either inactivated, or an attenuated [weakened] virus vaccine); two, a non-replicating viral vector vaccine that uses a benign virus as vector that carries the antigen of SARS-CoV; three, nucleic-acid vaccines that have genetic material like DNA and RNA of antigens like spike protein given to a person, helping human cells decode genetic material and produce the vaccine; and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine.
Vaccine development is a long, complex process. Unlike drugs that are given to people with a diseased, vaccines are given to healthy people and also vulnerable sections such as children, pregnant women and the elderly. So rigorous tests are compulsory. History says that the fastest time it took to develop a vaccine is five years, but it usually takes double or sometimes triple that time.
TRUMP VETOES THE BILL
Trump rejects the bill that passed overwhelmingly in the House of Representatives and Senate. This would present Congress with two options: 1. Round up the two-thirds majority in both the House and Senate to override Trump's veto before the bill expires, and then it automatically becomes law.
2. Sustain the president's veto, a scenario likely if enough Republicans abandon the legislation, despite their earlier votes for passage. The bill is killed.
TRUMP DOES NOTHING
Trump runs out the clock within 10 calendar days (except Sundays) of receiving it from Congress, neither signing nor vetoing it. The situation is known as a "pocket veto."
This step is somewhat complicated because it normally only works when Congress is adjourned.
In this case, the calendar works in Trump's favor if he wants to kill the bill. Within that 10-day time frame, the current 116th Congress expires on Jan. 3 and the new, 117th Congress is sworn in. Bills die if they are not enacted during the Congress in which they are introduced.
That means it could be left to President-elect Joe Biden to deal with after he is sworn in on Jan. 20. Meanwhile, people who lost their jobs during the pandemic would suffer as unemployment insurance for more than 14 million expires on Dec. 26.
Without enactment of the bill, the US government runs out of money at midnight December 28. If this battle is not resolved by then, Congress must either pass its fourth stopgap funding bill since last September or federal agencies will not have money to fully operate beginning Dec. 29.
In that case, tens of thousands of government workers could be furloughed and programs interrupted.
If Congress does pass a temporary bill, Trump would have to approve it or the shutdown begins.
Follow our full coverage of the coronavirus pandemic here.