The government has chosen to adopt a graded action plan, instead of a big bang one-off push to keep the lights on
The Rs 1.7 lakh crore relief package that finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced on March 26 clearly sets the government’s priorities about who needs to be protected the most from the devastating disruptions that the coronavirus pandemic and the nation-wide lockdown have caused.
The government has picked those living on the margins, those with limited savings and those with weak borrowing power as the first set of people for handholding. These are daily wage earners, construction workers, farmers and women with low income.
The lockdown’s effect is very similar to a mechanical hard stop on a device that was running. What happens when the government asks factories to shut down because people have to be confined at home? What happens when the government asks construction activity to stop overnight because areas with large gatherings have to be emptied out? What happens when restaurants and shops, other than those selling essentials, are ordered to shutter down because people’s physical proximity can add to the disease’s spread?
In such a situation, a restaurant, a retail garment seller, a property builder and a road builder will all show a similar first instinct: to cut costs. The temporary staff working at these establishments are often the first ones to find themselves out of work.
Frequently Asked Questions
A vaccine works by mimicking a natural infection. A vaccine not only induces immune response to protect people from any future COVID-19 infection, but also helps quickly build herd immunity to put an end to the pandemic. Herd immunity occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population becomes immune to a disease, making the spread of disease from person to person unlikely. The good news is that SARS-CoV-2 virus has been fairly stable, which increases the viability of a vaccine.
There are broadly four types of vaccine — one, a vaccine based on the whole virus (this could be either inactivated, or an attenuated [weakened] virus vaccine); two, a non-replicating viral vector vaccine that uses a benign virus as vector that carries the antigen of SARS-CoV; three, nucleic-acid vaccines that have genetic material like DNA and RNA of antigens like spike protein given to a person, helping human cells decode genetic material and produce the vaccine; and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine.
Vaccine development is a long, complex process. Unlike drugs that are given to people with a diseased, vaccines are given to healthy people and also vulnerable sections such as children, pregnant women and the elderly. So rigorous tests are compulsory. History says that the fastest time it took to develop a vaccine is five years, but it usually takes double or sometimes triple that time.
Many of these eke out a subsistence living, spending a very large proportion of their income on food, leaving very little to spend on other ‘non-essentials’ or aspirational products and services. They are a perfect exemplification of the Engel's Law, an economic theory German statistician Ernst Engel propounded in the 19th century, stating that the percentage spent on food purchases decreases as income rises and vice-versa.
With many of them suddenly jobless, their incomes have dramatically collapsed. The uncertainty over when economic activity is likely regain momentum has only deepened anxieties. This hard stop in the economy, unlike other recessions caused by systemic flaws such as the debt bubble of 2008, has been brought upon by the government because of a medical emergency. It is intentional and unavoidable.
Unlike previous occasions, when the meltdown was spread over a few quarters with signals flashing from various corners, the current interruption is more akin to switching of a light bulb. However, unlike a light bulb, an economy cannot be switched on again at the press of a button.
It is elegant to argue that production is plunging since workers are away from work. It is also neat to reason that once the medical crisis passes, production will resume and all jobs will be restored. In the real world though, switching on an economy is considerably more laboured and prolonged that switching it off.
That is perhaps the reason why the government has chosen to adopt a graded action plan, instead of a big bang one-off push to keep the lights on. The package that Sitharaman announced should be seen in this context. It is more of a ‘safeguard package’, dictated by the need to safeguard incomes of those who have seen the lockdown shave off a large proportion of their daily earnings.
The first step is to inspire confidence about the State-supported safety net among the most vulnerable. This is precisely what the government has sought to convey.One would reckon a few more packages are in the works, particularly for the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), traders who have been forced to close operations, and perhaps India’s vast consuming middle class that keeps the economy’s wheels moving rapidly. Large corporations, who are looking towards that one big stimulus, may have to wait a little longer.