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Moneycontrol.com India | Accounting Policy > Diversified > Accounting Policy followed by VJTF Eduservices - BSE: 509026, NSE: N.A
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VJTF Eduservices

BSE: 509026|ISIN: INE117F01013|SECTOR: Diversified
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Mar 16
Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1 (A). SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:

1. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements:

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Ind AS’) as notified by Ministry of Corporate Affairs pursuant to Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘the Act’) read with the Companies (Indian Accounting standards) Rules as amended from time to time and other related provisions of the Act.

These financial statements for the year ended 31st March, 2018 are the first financials with comparatives, prepared under Ind AS. For all previous periods including the year ended 31st March, 2017, the Company had prepared its financial statements in accordance with the accounting standards notified under companies (Accounting Standard) Rule, 2006 (as amended) and other relevant provisions of the Act (hereinafter referred to as ‘Previous GAAP’) used for its statutory reporting requirement in India.

The financial statements of the Company are prepared on the accrual basis of accounting and Historical cost convention except for the following material items that have been measured at fair value as required by the relevant Ind AS:

(i) Certain financial assets and liabilities

(ii) Defined benefit employee plan

The accounting policies are applied consistently to all the periods presented in the financial statements. All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non current as per the Company’s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Act.

The financial statements are presented in INR, the functional currency of the Company.

2. Use of Estimates and judgments:

The preparation of the financial statements requires the Management to make, judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The recognition, measurement, classification or disclosure of an item or information in the financial statements is made relying on these estimates. The estimates and judgements used in the preparation of the financial statements are continuously evaluated by the management and are based on historical experience and various other assumptions and factors (including expectations of future events) that the management believes to be reasonable under the existing circumstances. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

Critical accounting judgements and key source of estimation uncertainty

The Company is required to make judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amount of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an on-going basis. The areas involving critical estimates or judgments are:

(a) Recognition and measurement of defined benefit obligations, key actuarial assumptions

(b) Estimation of fair value of financial instruments

(c) Estimated credit loss of trade receivables

(d) Estimation of current tax expenses and payable

3. Property, plant and equipment (PPE)

Property, plant and equipment is stated at acquisition cost net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates, any directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment. Subsequent expenditure Subsequent costs are included in the assets carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and that the cost of the item can be reliably measured.

Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Property, plant and equipment which are not ready for intended use as on the date of Balance Sheet are disclosed as “Capital work-in-progress”.

4. Intangible assets

Intangible assets (other than goodwill on amalgamation) are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

5. Investment Property

Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property. Investment property is measured at its cost, including related transaction costs and where applicable borrowing costs less depreciation and impairment if any.

6. Depreciation and Amortization

(a) Property plant and equipment (PPE) and Investment Property

Depreciation is provided on a pro-rata basis on a straight line method based on estimated useful life prescribed under Schedule II to the Act. The residual values, useful lives and method of depreciation of property, plant and equipment is reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

(b) Intangible assets

Intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over the period of their expected useful lives. The amortisation period and the amortisation method is reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

7. Financial Instruments:

(a) Financial assets:

I. Initial recognition:

Financial assets are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. On initial recognition, a financial asset is recognised at fair value, in case of Financial assets which are recognised at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), its transaction costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. In other cases, the transaction costs are attributed to the acquisition value of the financial asset.

II. Subsequent measurement:

Financial assets are subsequently classified as measured at:

- amortised cost

- fair value through profit & loss (FVTPL)

- fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

The above classification is being determined considering the:

- the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and

- the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their recognition, except if and in the period the group changes its business model for managing financial assets.

(i) Measured at amortised cost:

Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost, if these financial assets are held within a business module whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified date to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

(ii) Measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL):

Financial assets other than equity instrument are measured at FVTPL unless it is measured at amortised cost or at FVTOCI on initial recognition. Such financial assets are measured at fair value with all changes in fair value, including interest income and dividend income if any, recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iii) Measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI):

Financial assets are measured at FVTOCI, if these financial assets are held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows that give rise on specified dates to solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding and by selling financial assets. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). Interest income measured using the Effective Interest Rate method and impairment losses, if any are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. On derecognition, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to ‘other income’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss

III. Equity instruments:

On initial recognition, the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income pertaining to investments in equity instruments. This election is not permitted if the equity investment is held for trading. These elected investments are initially measured at f air value plus transaction costs. Subsequently, they are measured at fair value with gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the ‘Reserve for equity instruments through other comprehensive income’. The cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss on disposal of the investments.

Dividends on these investments in equity instruments are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably. Dividends recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss are included in the ‘Other income’ line item.

IV. Impairment :

The Company recognises a loss allowance for Expected Credit Losses (ECL) on financial assets that are measured at amortised cost and at FVOCI. The credit loss is difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to an entity in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate. This is assessed on an individual or collective basis after considering all reasonable and supportable including that which is forward looking.

The Company’s trade receivables or contract revenue receivables do not contain significant financing component and loss allowance on trade receivables is measured at an amount equal to life time expected losses i.e. expected cash shortfall, being simplified approach for recognition of impairment loss allowance.

Under simplified approach, the Company does not track changes in credit risk. Rather it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on the lifetime ECL at each reporting date right from its initial recognition. The Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on the portfolio of trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivable and is adjusted for forward looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.

For financial assets other than trade receivables, the Company recognises 12—months expected credit losses for all originated or acquired financial assets if at the reporting date the credit risk of the financial asset has not increased significantly since its initial recognition. The expected credit losses are measured as lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on financial asset increases significantly since its initial recognition. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer significant increase in credit risks since initial recognition, then the Company reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12 months ECL. The impairment losses and reversals are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. For equity instruments and financial assets measured at FVTPL, there is no requirement of impairment testing.

V. Derecognition

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers rights to receive cash flows from an asset, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement.

In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

(b) Financial Liabilities

I. Initial Recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. Financial liabilities are initially recognised at fair value net of transaction costs for all financial liabilities not carried at fair value through profit or loss. The Company’s financial liabilities includes trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts.

II. Subsequent measurement

Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost are subsequently measured at using EIR method. Financial liabilities carried at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value with all changes in fair value recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

III. Loans & Borrowings:

After initial recognition, interest bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using EIR method. Gains and losses are recognized in profit & loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through EIR amortization process.

IV. Financial Guarantee Contracts

Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that requires a payment to be made or to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtors fails to make payment when due in accordance with the term of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognized initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee.

V. De-recognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.

VI. Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the Balance Sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

8. Fair Value Measurement

The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives, investments at fair value at each balance sheet date. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

(a) In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

(b) In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability

The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company. The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use. The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs. All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

(i) Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

(ii) Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.

(iii) Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.

9 Cash and Cash equivalents :

Cash and Cash equivalents include cash and Cheque in hand, bank balances, demand deposits with banks and other short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash & which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value where original maturity is three months or less. Outstanding bank overdrafts are adjusted in cash and cash equivalents as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.

10. Foreign Currency Transactions:

a) Initial Recognition

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year.

b) Measurement of Foreign Currency Items at the Balance Sheet Date

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company are restated at the closing exchange rates. Non monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these transactions are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

11. Revenue Recognition :

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances. The Company recognises revenue when the amount of revenue can be reliably measured, it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the Company and specific criteria have been met for each of the Company’s activities as described below.

Income from Services (Educational Activities)

Revenues from services rendered are recognized pro-rata on accrual basis over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered.

Rent

Rental Income is recognised on a time proportion basis as per the contractual obligations agreed with the respective tenant.

Interest

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable and based on effective interest rate method.

Dividend

Dividend Income is recognized when right to receive the same is established.

12. Borrowing Cost:

General and specific borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalized as a part of Cost of that assets, during the period till all the activities necessary to prepare the Qualifying assets for its intended use or sale are complete during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the assets for its intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

13. Taxes on Income:

Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent it relates to items directly recognized in equity or in other comprehensive income.

Current tax:

Current tax is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit is different from accounting profit due to temporary differences between accounting and tax treatments, and due to items that are never taxable or tax deductible. Tax provisions are included in current liabilities. Interest and penalties on tax liabilities are provided for in the tax charge. The Company offsets, the current tax assets and liabilities (on a year on year basis) where it has a legally enforceable right and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis or to realise the assets and liabilities on net basis.

Deferred tax:

Deferred income tax is recognized using the balance sheet approach. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for deductible and taxable temporary differences arising between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount in financial statements. Deferred income tax asset are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized. Deferred tax assets are not recognised where it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realised in the future.

The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilized. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Minimum Alternative Tax (‘MAT’) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income-tax during the specified period. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal income-tax during the specified period.

14. Employee Benefits:

(a) Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognized in respect of employees’ services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

(b) Post-employment obligations

The Company has following post-employment plans:

(i) Defined benefit plans such a gratuity and

(ii) Defined contribution plans such as Provident fund

(i) Defined-benefit plan:

The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plan is the present value of defined benefit obligations at the end of the reporting period less fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligations is calculated annually by actuaries through actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method.

The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:

(a) Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailment and non-routine settlements;

(b) Net interest expense or income

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expenses in the statement of the profit & loss.

Re-measurement comprising of actuarial gains and losses arising from

(a) Re-measurement of Actuarial (gains)/losses

(b) Return on plan assets, excluding amount recognized in effect of asset ceiling

(c) Re-measurement arising because of change in effect of asset ceiling are recognised in the period in which they occur directly in Other comprehensive income. Re-measurement are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.

Ind AS 19 requires the exercise of judgment in relation to various assumptions including future pay rises, inflation and discount rates and employee and pensioner demographics. The Company determines the assumptions in conjunction with its actuaries, and believes these assumptions to be in line with best practice, but the application of different assumptions could have a significant effect on the amounts reflected in the income statement, other comprehensive income and balance sheet. There may be also interdependency between some of the assumptions.

(ii) Defined-contribution plan:

Under defined contribution plans, provident fund, the Company pays pre-defined amounts to separate funds and does not have any legal or informal obligation to pay additional sums. Defined Contribution plan comprise of contributions to the employees’ provident fund with the government, superannuation fund and certain state plans like Employees’ State Insurance and Employees’ Pension Scheme. The Company’s payments to the defined contribution plans are recognised as expenses during the period in which the employees perform the services that the payment covers.

15. Leases:

Where the Company is Lessee

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis as per the terms of agreements entered with the counter parties.

Where the Company is Lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Assets subject to operating leases are included in property, plant and equipment. The Company recognizes lease rentals from the property leased out, on accrual basis as per the terms of agreements entered with the counter parties. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

16. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets:

A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the group has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract.

A disclosure for contingent liabilities is made where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may probably not require an outflow of resources or an obligation for which the future outcome cannot be ascertained with reasonable certainty. When there is a possible or a present obligation where the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in financial statements.

17. Impairment of Non-Financial Assets:

Goodwill and intangible assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortization and are tested annually for impairment, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that they might be impaired. Other assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit or loss for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest level for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows which are largely dependent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets (cash-generating units). Non-financial assets other than goodwill that suffered an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

18. Investment in Subsidiaries, Joint-ventures and Associate:

Investment in equity shares of subsidiaries, joint-venture and associate are recorded at cost and reviewed for impairment at each reporting date.

19. Earnings Per Share:

Basic earnings per shares are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss after tax for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to the equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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