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Moneycontrol.com India | Accounting Policy > Transport & Logistics > Accounting Policy followed by Snowman Logistics - BSE: 538635, NSE: SNOWMAN
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Snowman Logistics

BSE: 538635|NSE: SNOWMAN|ISIN: INE734N01019|SECTOR: Transport & Logistics
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1. Significant accounting policies

This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

a) Basis of preparation

i. Compliance with Ind AS

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared as a separate set of financial statement in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015. (as amended from time to time).

ii. Historical cost convention

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following:

- Certain financial instruments that are measured at fair value;

- Define benefit plan-plan assets measured at fair value;

- Assets held for sale-measured at lower of carrying value and fair value less cost to sell; and

- Share-based payments

The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (''INR'') and all values are rounded to the nearest INR lakhs (i.e. INR 100,000), except otherwise indicated.

iii. Current and non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification.

An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading.

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

b) Segment reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM) of the company. The CODM, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Chairman and Managing Director of the company. The company has identified three reportable segments Warehousing services Transportation services and Consignment Agency Services i.e. based on the information reviewed by CODM. Refer note 29 for segment information presented.

c) Foreign currency translation

i. Functional and presentation currency

The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (INR), which is the Company''s functional and presentation currency.

ii. Transactions and balances

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Group''s entities at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition. However, for practical reasons, the Company uses an average rate if the average approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date.

Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognised in profit or loss.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss).

d) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the Government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to credit risks.

Sales tax/ value added tax (VAT) / Goods and Service Tax (GST) is not received by the Company on its own account. Rather, it is tax collected on value added to the service by the seller on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.

The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognised.

Rendering of services:

i. Revenue from sale of services is recognized as per the terms of contracts with customers based on delivery of services when the outcome of the transactions involving rendering of services can be estimated reliably.

ii. For fixed-price contracts, revenue is recognised based on the actual service provided to the end of the reporting period as a proportion of the total services to be provided.

Interest income

For all debt instruments measured either at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortised cost of a financial liability.

When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in finance income in the statement of profit and loss.

Dividends

Revenue is recognised when the Company''s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.

e) Taxes Current income tax

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date in the countries where the Company operates and generates taxable income.

Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences

Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised.

Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Sales/ value added taxes paid on acquisition of assets or on incurring expenses

Expenses and assets are recognised net of the amount of sales/ value added taxes paid, except:

- When the tax incurred on a purchase of assets or services is not recoverable from the taxation authority, in which case, the tax paid is recognised as part of the cost of acquisition of the asset or as part of the expense item, as applicable

- When receivables and payables are stated with the amount of tax included

The net amount of tax recoverable from, or payable to, the taxation authority is included as part of receivables or payables in the balance sheet.

Minimum Alternate Tax

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax for the year. The deferred tax asset is recognised for MAT credit available only to the extent that it is probable that the concerned company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the company recognizes MAT credit as an asset, it is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as part of deferred tax asset. The company reviews the MAT credit entitlement asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that it will pay normal tax during the specified period

f) Leases

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease. Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the Company as lessee are classified as operating leases.

Finance Lease - As a lessee

Finance leases are capitalised at the lease''s inception at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding rental obligations, net of finance charges, are included in borrowings or other financial liabilities as appropriate. Each lease payment is allocated between the liability and finance cost. The finance cost is charged to the profit or loss over the lease period so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period.

Operating Lease - as a lessee

Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the lessor) are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor''s expected inflationary cost increases.

g) Impairment of non financial assets

The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company''s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year. To estimate cash flow projections beyond periods covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts, the Group extrapolates cash flow projections in the budget using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified. In any case, this growth rate does not exceed the long-term average growth rate for the products, industries, or country or countries in which the entity operates, or for the market in which the asset is used.

Impairment losses of continuing operations are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

For assets, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognised impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''s or CGU''s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.

h) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company''s cash management.

i) Trade receivables

Trade receivables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment.

j) Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Group commits to purchase or sell the asset.

Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

- Debt instruments at amortised cost

- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

Debt instruments at amortised cost

A ''debt instrument'' is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

This category is the most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables. For more information on receivables, refer to Note of trade receivables.

Debt instrument at FVTOCI

A ''debt instrument'' is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

- The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

- The asset''s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the P&L.

On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to P&L. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

Debt instrument at FVTPL

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ''accounting mismatch''). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''pass-through'' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the group applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance

b) Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at FVTOCI

c) Lease receivables under Ind AS 17

d) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18

e) Loan commitments which are not measured as at FVTPL

f) Financial guarantee contracts which are not measured as at FVTPL

The Company follows ''simplified approach'' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:

- Trade receivables or contract revenue receivables; anD

- All lease receivables resulting from transactions within the scope of Ind AS 17

The application of simplified approach does not require the group to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the group determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used.

If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the group in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:

- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument

- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.

For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.

The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.

Financial liabilities Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company''s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, Bank guarantee contracts.

Subsequent measurement The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below: Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments. Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to P&L. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.

Loans and borrowings

This is the category most relevant to the group. After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

This category generally applies to borrowings. For more information refer Note for borrowings Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.

Embedded derivatives

An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid (combined) instrument that also includes a non-derivative host contract - with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument vary in a way similar to a stand-alone derivative. An embedded derivative causes some or all of the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract to be modified according to a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract. Reassessment only occurs if there is either a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that would otherwise be required or a reclassification of a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss.

If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope of Ind AS 109, the group does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments.

Reclassification of financial assets

The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company''s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company''s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the group either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.

Fair value measurement

The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant''s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

- Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

- Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

- Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

The Company determines the policies and procedures for both recurring fair value measurement, such as derivative instruments and unquoted financial assets measured at fair value, and for non-recurring measurement, such as assets held for distribution in discontinued operations.

External valuers are involved for valuation of significant assets, such as properties and unquoted financial assets, and significant liabilities, such as contingent consideration. Involvement of external valuers is decided upon annually by the Company after discussion with and approval by the Company''s Audit Committee. Selection criteria include market knowledge, reputation, independence and whether professional standards are maintained. Valuers are normally rotated every three years. The Company decides, after discussions with the Company''s external valuers, which valuation techniques and inputs to use for each case.

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.

This note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.

- Disclosures for valuation methods, significant estimates and assumptions (note 34, 46, 48)

- Contingent consideration (note 36)

- Quantitative disclosures of fair value measurement hierarchy (note 47)

- Financial instruments (including those carried at amortised cost) (note 7, 14, 15, 20, 45, 46, 47, 48)

k) Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the company or the counterparty.

l) Property, Plant and equipment

Freehold land is carried at historical cost. All other items of property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset''s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the company and cost can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate assets is derecognised when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to statement of profit and loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.

Capital work in progress is stated at cost, net of accumulated impairment loss, if any.

Depreciation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value

Depreciation on additions/ deletions to Tangible and Intangible Assets is calculated on pro-rata basis from the month of such additions/ deletions. The Company provides depreciation on straight-line method at the rates specified under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013

The residual values are not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset. The asset''s residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period. Assets individually costing less than INR 5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

An asset''s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset''s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount.

Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in profit or loss within other Non operating income.

m) Intangible assets

Intangible assets purchased are measured at cost or fair value as of the date of acquisition, as applicable, less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment, if any. Intangible assets of the Company consist of computer software and is amortised under straight line method over a period of three years.

Costs associated with maintaining computer software is recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs that are directly attributable to the design and testing of identifiable and unique software products controlled by the company are recognised as intangible assets when the following criteria are met:

- It is technically feasible to complete the software so that it will be available for use

- Management intends to complete the software and use or sell it

- There is an ability to use or sell the software

- It can be demonstrated how the software will generate probable future economic benefits

- Adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the software are available, and

- The expenditure attributable to the software during its development can be reliably measured.

Directly attributable costs that are capitalised as part of the software include employee costs and an appropriate portion of relevant overheads.

Capitalised development costs are recorded as intangible assets and amortised from the point at which the asset is available for use.

Amortisation methods and periods

The company amortises intangible assets with a finite useful life using the straight-line method over the period of three years.

n) Trade and other payables

These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the Company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. The amounts are unsecured. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognised initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using effective interest method.

o) Borrowings

Borrowings are initially recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction cost) and redemption amount is recognised in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest rate method. Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognised as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down. In this case, the fee is deferred until the draw down occurs. To the extent there is no evidence that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down, the fee is capitalised as a prepayment for liquidity services and amortised over the period of the facility to which it relates.

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in statement of profit and loss.

Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period. Where there is a breach of a material provision of a long-term arrangement on or before the end of the reporting period with the effect that the liability becomes payable on demand on the reporting date, the entity does not classify the liability as current, if the lender agreed, after the reporting period and before the approval of the financial statements for issue, not to demand payment as a consequence of the breach.

p) Borrowing costs

General and specific borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying assets are capitalised during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the assets for its intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale

Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.

Other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

q) Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses.

Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognised even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations may be small.

Provision are measured at the present value of management''s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risk specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as interest expense.

Provisions for legal claims, service warranties, volume discounts and returns are recognised when the company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses. Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognized even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations may be small.

The measurement of provision for restructuring includes only direct expenditures arising from the restructuring, which are both necessarily entailed by the restructuring and not associated with the ongoing activities of the company.

r) Employee benefits

i. Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognised in Statement of profit and loss in respect of employees service up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

ii. Other long-term employee benefit obligations

The liabilities for earned leave and sick leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the repotting period using the projected unit credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

Remeasurement as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in profit or loss.

The obligations are presented as current liabilities in the balance sheet if the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.

iii. Post-employment obligations

The company operates the following post-employment schemes:

(a) defined benefit plans i.e. gratuity; and

(b) defined contribution plans such as provident fund.

Gratuity obligations

The liability recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plan is the present value of the defined obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation denominated in INR is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflow by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligations.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of defined benefit obligations and fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expenses in the statement of profit and loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustment and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in statement of profit and loss as past service cost.

Defined contribution plans

The company pays provident fund contribution to publicly administered provident funds as per local regulations. The Company has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are accounted for as defined contribution plans and the contributions are recognised as employee benefit expense when they are due.

iv. Share-based payments

Share-based compensation benefits are provided to employees via the Snowman Logistics Limited Employee Option Plan.

Employee options

The fair value of options granted under the Snowman Logistics Limited Employee Option Plan is recognised as an employee benefits expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The total amount to be expensed is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted:

- including any market performance conditions (e.g., the entity''s share price)

- excluding the impact of any service and non-market performance vesting conditions (e.g. profitability, sales growth targets and remaining an employee of the entity over a specified time period), and

- including the impact of any non-vesting conditions (e.g. the requirement for employees to save or holdings shares for a specific period of time).

The total expense is recognised over the vesting period, which is the period over which all of the specified vesting conditions are to be satisfied. At the end of each period, the entity revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to vest based on the non-market vesting and service conditions. It recognises the impact of the revision to original estimates, if any, in profit or loss, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.

v. Bonus plans

The company recognise the liability and an expenses for bonus. The company recognise a provision where contractually obliged or where there is a past practice that has created a constructive obligation.

vi. Termination benefits

Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the company before the normal retirement date, or when an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The company recognises termination benefits at the earlier of the following dates:

(a) when the company can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits; and

(b) when the entity recognises costs for a restructuring that is within the scope of Ind AS 37 and involves the payment of terminations benefits. In the case of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy, the termination benefits are measured based on the number of employees expected to accept the offer. Benefits falling due more than 12 months after the end of the reporting period are discounted to present value.

s) Earnings per share

i. Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing:

The Net profit or loss attributable to the owner of the Company by the weighted average number of equity share outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in equity shares.

ii. Diluted earnings per share

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figure used in the determination of basis earnings per share to take into account:

- the after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and

- the weighted average number of additional equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

t) Contributed equity

Equity shares are classified as equity.

Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

u) Dividends

Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorised and no longer at the discretion of the entity, on or before the end of the reporting period but not distributed at the end of the reporting period.

v) Exceptional Items:

When items of income and expense within profit or loss from ordinary activities are of such size, nature or incidence that their disclosure is relevant to explain the performance of the Company for the year, the nature and amount of such items is disclosed separately as Exceptional items.

w) Government grants

Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as income over the expected useful life of the related asset.

When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset.

x) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

y) Rounding of amounts:

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been round off to the nearest lakhs as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated

z) Standards issued but not yet effective

i. Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Ind AS 115 was notified on 28 March 2018 and establishes a five-step model to account for revenue arising from contracts with customers. Under Ind AS 115, revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer.

The new revenue standard will supersede all current revenue recognition requirements under Ind AS. This new standard requires revenue to be recognized when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in amounts that reflect the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Ind AS 115 is effective for the Company in the first quarter of financial year 2018-19 using either one of two methods: (i) retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented in accordance with Ind AS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors, with the option to elect certain practical expedients as defined within Ind AS 115 (the full retrospective method); or (ii) retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying Ind AS 115 recognized at the date of initial application (1 April 2018) and providing certain additional disclosures as defined in Ind AS 115 (the modified retrospective method).

The Company continues to evaluate the available transition methods and its contractual arrangements. The ultimate impact on revenue resulting from the application of Ind AS 115 will be subject to assessments that are dependent on many variables, including, but not limited to, the terms of the contractual arrangements and the mix of business. The Company''s considerations also include, but are not limited to, the comparability of its financial statements and the comparability within its industry from application of the new standard to its contractual arrangements. The Company continues to evaluate the changes to accounting system and processes, and additional disclosure requirements that may be necessary. A reliable estimate of the quantitative impact of Ind AS 115 on the financial statements will only be possible once the implementation project has been completed. This standard will come into force from accounting period commencing on or after 1 April 2018.

ii. Amendments to Ind 112 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities: Clarification of the scope of disclosure requirements in Ind AS 112

The amendments clarify that the disclosure requirements in Ind AS 112, other than those in paragraphs B10- B16, apply to an entity''s interest in a subsidiary, a joint venture or an associate (or a portion of its interest in a joint venture or an associate) that is classified (or included in a disposal Company that is classified) as held for sale.

As at 31 March 2018, there are not entities classified as held for sale and hence these amendment is unlikely to affect the Company''s financial statements. The amendment are effective retrospectively for annual periods beginning on or after 1 April 2018.

iii. Amendments to Ind AS 12 Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets for Unrealised Losses

The amendments clarify that an entity needs to consider whether tax law restricts the sources of taxable profits against which it may make deductions on the reversal of that deductible temporary difference. Furthermore, the amendments provide guidance on how an entity should determine future taxable profits and explain the circumstances in which taxable profit may include the recovery of some assets for more than their carrying amount.

Entities are required to apply the amendments retrospectively. However, on initial application of the amendments, the change in the opening equity of the earliest comparative period may be recognised in opening retained earnings (or in another component of equity, as appropriate), without allocating the change between opening retained earnings and other components of equity. Entities applying this relief must disclose that fact.

These amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 April 2018. These amendments are not expected to have any impact on the Company.

iv. Appendix B to Ind AS 21 Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration

The Appendix clarifies that, in determining the spot exchange rate to use on initial recognition of the related asset, expense or income (or part of it) on the derecognition of a non-monetary asset or non-monetary liability relating to advance consideration, the date of the transaction is the date on which an entity initially recognises the non-monetary asset or non-monetary liability arising from the advance consideration. If there are multiple payments or receipts in advance, then the entity must determine the transaction date for each payment or receipt of advance consideration.

Entities may apply the Appendix requirements on a fully retrospective basis. Alternatively, an entity may apply these requirements prospectively to all assets, expenses and income in its scope that are initially recognised on or after:

- The beginning of the reporting period in which the entity first applies the Appendix, or

- The beginning of a prior reporting period presented as comparative information in the financial statements of the reporting period in which the entity first applies the Appendix.

The Appendix is effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 April 2018. However, the amendment is unlikely to have any impact on the Company.

aa) Critical estimates and judgements

The Preparation of financial statements require the use of accounting estimates which, by definition, will seldom equal the actual results. Management also needs to exercise judgement in applying the company''s accounting policies.

This note provides an overview of the areas that involved a higher degree ofjudgement or complexity, and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be different that those originally assessed. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in relevant notes together with information about the basis of calculation for each affected line item in the financial statements.

The areas involving critical estimates or judgements are:

- Recognition of deferred tax assets for carried forward losses and 35AD benefits - Note 18

- Estimation of Provisions & Contingent Liabilities

The Company exercises judgement in measuring and recognising provisions and the exposures to contingent liabilities which is related to pending litigation or other outstanding claims. Judgement is necessary in assessing the likelihood that a pending claim will succeed, or a liability will arise, and to quantify the possible range of the financial settlement. Because of the inherent uncertainty in this evaluation process, actual liability may be different from the originally estimated as provision. (Refer Note 33)

- Estimated useful life of tangible and intangible assets

The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset''s expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company''s assets are determined by management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technology. For the relative size of the Company''s intangible assets. (Refer Note 3 & 4)

- Estimation of defined benefit obligation - Note 30

The present value of the defined benefit obligations depends on a number of factors that are determined on an actuarial basis using a number of assumptions. The assumptions used in determining the net cost (income) for post employments plans include the discount rate. Any changes in these assumptions will impact the carrying amount of such obligations.

The Company determines the appropriate discount rate at the end of each year. This is the interest rate that should be used to determine the present value of estimated future cash outflows expected to be required to settle the defined benefit obligations. In determining the appropriate discount rate, the Company considers the interest rates of government bonds of maturity approximating the terms of the related plan liability. Refer note 30 for the details of the assumptions used in estimating the defined benefit obligation.

- Impairment of trade receivables

Trade receivables are typically unsecured and are derived from revenue earned from customers. Credit risk has been managed by the Company through credit approvals, establishing credit limits and continuously monitoring the creditworthiness of customers to which the Company grants credit terms in the normal course of business. On account of adoption of Ind AS 109, the company uses expected credit loss model to assess the impairment loss or gain. The Company uses a provision matrix and forward-looking information and an assessment of the credit risk over the expected life of the financial asset to compute the expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables. (Refer Note 38)

- Estimated fair value of financial instruments

The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined using valuation techniques. The Management uses its judgement to select a variety of methods and make assumptions that are mainly based on market conditions existing at the end of each reporting period. For details of the key assumptions used and the impact of changes to these assumptions (Refer Note 37).

Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated. They are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that may have a financial impact on the company and that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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