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SENSEX NIFTY India | Accounting Policy > Bearings > Accounting Policy followed by SKF India - BSE: 500472, NSE: SKFINDIA

SKF India

BSE: 500472|NSE: SKFINDIA|ISIN: INE640A01023|SECTOR: Bearings
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Mar 18
Accounting Policy Year : Mar '19


This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

1.1 Basis of preparation

i) Compliance with Ind AS

The financial statements comply in all material aspects with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015] and other relevant provisions of the Act.

ii) Historical cost convention

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following:

a) certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value;

b) assets held for sale - measured at fair value less cost to sell;

c) defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value;

1.2 Segment reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. The chief operating decision maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of segments, has been identified as the Board of Directors

1.3 Foreign currency translation

i) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of the Company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The Financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (INR) which is the Company’s functional and presentation currency.

ii) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates are recognized in profit or loss.

All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in the statement of profit and loss on a net basis within other income.

1.4 Revenue recognition

Ind AS 115 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers, mandatory for reporting periods beginning on or after April 1, 2018, replaces existing revenue recognition requirements. Under the modified retrospective approach, there were no material adjustments required to the retained earnings as at April 1, 2018. Also, the applicability of Ind AS 115 did not have any material adjustments on recognition and measurement of revenue and related items in the financial statements of the Company.

The new standard deals with revenue recognition and establishes principles for reporting useful information to users of financial statements about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from an entity’s contracts with customers. Revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of a promised good or service and thus has the ability to direct the use and obtain the benefits from the good or service in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services.

A new five-step process must be applied before revenue can be recognized:

(i) identify contracts with customers

(ii) identify the separate performance obligation

(iii) determine the transaction price of the contract

(iv) allocate the transaction price to each of the separate performance obligations, and

(v) recognize the revenue as each performance obligation is satisfied.

Revenue recognition policy

The Company has following streams of revenue:

(i) Sale of goods

(ii) Sale of Services

If a contract is separated into more than one performance obligation, the Company allocates the total transaction price to each performance obligation in an amount based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or services underlying each performance obligation.

The Company assesses for the timing of revenue recognition in case of each distinct performance obligation. The Company first assesses whether the revenue can be recognized over time as it performs if any of the following criteria is met:

(a) The customer simultaneously consumes the benefits as the Company performs, or

(b) The customer controls the work-in-progress, or

(c) The Company’s performance does not create an asset with alternative use to the Company and the Company has right to payment for performance completed till date.

If none of the criteria above are met, the Company recognized revenue at a point-in-time. The point-in-time is determined when the control of the goods or services is transferred which is generally determined based on when the significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the customer. Apart from this, the Company also considers its present right to payment, the legal title to the goods, the physical possession and the customer acceptance in determining the point in time where control has been transferred.

Contracts are modified to account for changes in contract specifications and requirements. The Company considers contract modifications to exist when the modification either creates new or changes the existing enforceable rights and obligations. Most of the contract modifications are for goods or services that are not distinct from the existing contract due to the significant integration service provided in the context of the contract and are accounted for as if they were part of that existing contract. The effect of a contract modification on the transaction price and our measure of progress for the performance obligation to which it relates, is recognized as an adjustment to revenue (either as an increase in or a reduction of revenue) on a cumulative catch-up basis.

Revenue recognized at a point-in-time :-

For sale of products and sale of services, revenue is recognized at point in time when control of goods is transferred and service is rendered to the customer - based on delivery terms, payment terms, customer acceptance and other indicators of control as mentioned above.

1.5 Government grants

Grants from the government are recognized at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the Company will comply with all attached conditions.

1.6 Income tax

The income tax expense or credit for the period is the tax payable on the current period’s taxable income based on the applicable income tax rate adjusted by changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities attributable to temporary differences.

Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period and are assumed to continue to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realized or the deferred income tax liability is settled.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences and unused tax losses only if it is probable that future taxable amounts will be available to utilize those temporary differences and losses.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and when the deferred tax balances relate to the same taxation authority. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Current and deferred tax is recognized in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case, the tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.

1.7 Leases

As a lessee

Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the Company as lessee are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the lessor) are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.

As a lessor

Lease income from operating leases where the Company is a lessor is recognized in income on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the receipts are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the expected inflationary cost increases.

The respective leased assets are included in the balance sheet based on their nature.

1.8 Impairment of assets

Assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows which are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets (cash-generating units). Non financial assets that suffered an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period.

1.9 Cash and cash equivalents

For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, deposits held at call with financial institutions, other shortterm, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet.

1.10 Trade receivables

Trade receivables are recognized initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

1.11 Inventories

Raw materials and stores, work in progress, traded and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of raw materials and traded goods comprises cost of purchases. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity. Cost of inventories also include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs are assigned to individual items of inventory on the basis of first-in first-out basis. Costs of purchased inventory are determined after deducting rebates and discounts.

1.12 Financial assets and financial liabilities

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized in the balance sheets when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of a financial instrument. Financial instruments are initially recorded at fair value, which is normally equal to transaction price. Transaction costs are included in the initial measurement of financial assets and liabilities that are not subsequently measured at fair value through the income statement.

Financial assets categorized as loans and receivables are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Impairment losses (primarily allowance for doubtful accounts) are recognized if management believes that sufficient objective evidence exists indicating that the asset may not be recovered. For disclosure purposes, fair values have been calculated using valuation techniques, mainly discounted cash flow analyses based on observable market data. For current receivables and liabilities (such as trade receivables and payables) the carrying amount is considered to correspond to fair value.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Where discounted cash flow techniques are used, the future cash flows are determined (if not stated explicit in the contract) based on the best assessment by management and discounted using the market interest rate for similar instruments. Financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Financial assets are derecognized when the contractual rights to the cash flow have expired or been transferred together with substantially all risks and rewards. Financial liabilities are derecognized when they are extinguished.

Investment in government securities that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortized cost. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.

1.13 Property, plant and equipment (PPE), Investment Properties and Intangible assets

Freehold land is carried at historical cost. All other items of property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognized when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to profit or loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.

The Company has adopted deemed cost of Property, plant and equipment (PPE) as its carrying value as per earlier GAAP.

Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in profit or loss within other income.

The useful lives are reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date and revised, if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortized depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life.

Investment Properties

Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property. Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and where applicable borrowing costs. Subsequent expenditure is capitalized to the asset’s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized.

Investment properties are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Investment properties generally have a useful life of 33 years. The useful life has been determined based on technical evaluation performed by the management’s expert.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets are stated at initial cost less any accumulated amortization and any impairment.

Amortization is made on a straight line basis over the estimated useful lives and begins once the asset is ready for its intended use. The useful lives are based to a large extent on historical experience, the expected application, as well as other individual characteristics of the asset. The useful lives are:

- Software in use - 3 years

1.14 Trade and other payables

These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the Company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. The amounts are unsecured and are paid as per the terms of payments. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognized initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

1.15 Borrowings

Borrowings are initially recognized at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost.

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognized in profit or loss as other income.

1.16 Provisions

Provisions for legal claims, service warranties, volume discounts and returns are recognized when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognized for future operating losses.

Provisions are measured at the present value of management’s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as interest expense.

1.17 Post employment benefits Employee benefits

i) Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognized in respect of employees’ services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

ii) Other long-term employee benefit obligations

The liabilities for earned leave and sick leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in profit or loss.

iii) Post-employment obligations

The company operates the following post-employment schemes:

a) defined benefit plans such as gratuity and provident fund (for employees who are members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme)

b) defined contribution plans such as superannuation and provident fund (for other employees who are not members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme)

Defined Benefit Plans

The liability or asset recognized in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity and provident fund is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

With respect to employees who are members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme (‘the Trust’) contribution for provident fund to the Trust is a defined benefit plan as the Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from investments made by the Trust and notified interest rate. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the employee’s salary. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognized immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.

Defined contribution plans

Contributions to the Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund which are defined contribution schemes, are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the contribution is due. For employees other than members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme, both the Company’s and employees’ contribution is paid to Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (RPFC) on a monthly basis. The Company has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid.

iv) Bonus Plans

The Company recognizes a liability and an expense for bonuses. The company recognizes a provision where contractually obliged or where there is a past practice that has created a constructive obligation.

v) Termination benefits

Voluntary Retirement Scheme costs are charged off to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

1.18 Contributed Equity

Equity shares are classified as equity Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

1.19 Dividends

Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorized and not paid as at the end of the reporting period.

1.20 Earnings per share

The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity and equivalent diluted equity shares outstanding during the year, except where the result would be anti dilutive.

1.21 Rounding of amounts

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded off to the nearest million as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated.


The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. This note provide an overview of the areas that involve a higher degree of judgement or complexity and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be different than those originally assessed. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is mentioned below.

Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated.

They are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that may have a financial impact on the Company and that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

2(A) Significant Judgement

a) Legal Contingency

The Company has received orders and notices from tax authorities in respect of direct taxes and indirect taxes.

The outcome of these matters may have a material effect on the financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Management regularly analyzes current information about these matters and provides provisions for probable contingent losses including the estimate of legal expense to resolve the matters. In making the decision regarding the need for loss provisions, management considers the degree of probability of an unfavorable outcome and the ability to make a sufficiently reliable estimate of the amount of loss. The filing of a suit or formal assertion of a claim against the Company or the disclosure of any such suit or assertions, does not automatically indicate that a provision of a loss may be appropriate.

2(B) Significant estimate

a) Impairment of financial assets

The impairment provisions for financial assets disclosed under note 34C are based on assumptions about risk of default and expected loss rates and timing of the cash flows. The company uses judgement in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the impairment calculation, based on the Company’s past history, existing market conditions as well as forward looking estimates at the end of each reporting period.

b) Fair valuation of financial instruments

When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques including the discounted cash flow model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgement is required in establishing fair values. Judgements include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments. See Note 33 for further disclosures.

c) Defined benefit plan

The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan, other retirement benefits, the present value of the gratuity obligation and other retirement benefit obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.

The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate, the management considers the interest rates of government bonds in currencies consistent with the currencies of the post-employment benefit obligation.

The mortality rate is based on Indian Assured Lives Mortality (2006-08) Ultimate. Those mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes. Future salary increases and gratuity increases are based on expected future inflation rates. Further details about gratuity obligations are given in Note 38(H).

d) Fair Valuation of Investment Property

The Company obtains independent valuations for its investment properties at least annually. The Valuation is performed using Income approach-Rent capiltalization method as per Ind AS 113- Fair value measurement.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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