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Moneycontrol.com India | Accounting Policy > Plastics > Accounting Policy followed by Sintex Plastics Technology - BSE: 540653, NSE: SPTL
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Sintex Plastics Technology

BSE: 540653|NSE: SPTL|ISIN: INE501W01021|SECTOR: Plastics
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '17

I. Statement of compliance

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Ind AS as notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.

Up to the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of previous GAAP, which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. These are the Company’s first Ind AS financial statements (refer note 17). Since, the Company was incorporated on August 4, 2015 as a wholly owned subsidiary of SIL which is a Phase I Company from the view point of Ind AS adoption, the transition date for the Company is August 4, 2015. Refer the Basis of preparation and presentation below for the details of first-time adoption exemptions availed by the Company.

II. Basis of preparation and presentation

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.

Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes in to account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date.

In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorized into level1, 2, or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurements in its entirety, which are described as follows:

- Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;

- Level 2 inputs are inputs, that are quoted prices included within level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and

- Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.

III. Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for the estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances.

Sale of goods

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the goods are delivered and titles have passed, at which time all the following conditions are satisfied:

- the Company has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;

- the Company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;

- the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

- it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company; and

- costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

The Company recognizes revenues on sale of products, net of discounts, sales incentives, rebates granted, returns, sales taxes and duties when the products are delivered to customer or when delivered to a carrier for export sale, which is when title and risk and rewards of ownership pass to the customer. Sale of products is presented gross of manufacturing taxes like excise duty wherever applicable.

Export sales includes export benefits received as per the Import and Export Policy in respect of exports made under the said schemes as notified by government and recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the entity will comply with the conditions attached to them and that the benefit is received.

The Company provides warranty (refer to accounting policy on provisions) on certain products based on customer requirements for which liability is recognised at the time the product is sold.

Sale of services

Income from service rendered is recognised on accrual basis based on the terms of agreements and when services are rendered.

Dividend and interest income

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).

Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

IV. Leasing

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

The Company as a lessor

Amount due from the lessees under finance leases are recognised as receivables at the amount of the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to the accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Company’s net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.

Rental income from operating leases is recognised on straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct cost incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised on straight-line basis over the lease term.

The Company as a lessee

Assets held under finance leases are initially recognised as assets of the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation.

Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance expenses are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalised in accordance with the Company’s general policy on borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

Lease payments under an operating lease shall be recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless either:

a. another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the user’s benefit even if the payments to the lessors are not on that basis; or

b. the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases. If payments to the lessor vary because of factors other than general inflation, then this condition is not met.

V. Foreign currency translations

The functional currency of the Company has been determined on the basis of the primary economic environment in which it operates. The functional currency of the Company is INR.

In preparing the financial statements of each individual Company entity, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Nonmonetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.

Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise except for:

- exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings;

- exchange differences on monetary items receivable from or payable to a foreign operation for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur (therefore forming part of the net investment in the foreign operation), which are recognised initially in other comprehensive income and reclassified from equity to Statement of Profit and Loss on repayment of the monetary items.

VI. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

VII. Employee Benefits

Retirement benefit costs and termination benefits

Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions. For defined benefit retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), is reflected immediately in the statement of financial position with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognised in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognised in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorised as follows:

- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);

- net interest expense or income; and

- remeasurement

The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in profit or loss in the line item employee benefits expenses. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the statement of financial position represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans. A liability for a termination benefit is recognised at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognises any related restructuring costs.

Short-term and other long-term employee benefits

A liability is recognised for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries, annual leave and sick leave in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.

Liabilities recognised in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.

Liabilities recognised in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date.

VIII. Taxation

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

Current tax

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws in the countries where the Company operates and generates taxable income.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the Company is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments and interests are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which to utilise the benefits of the temporary differences and they are expected to reverse in the foreseeable future.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

For the purposes of measuring deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets on non-depreciable assets the carrying amounts of such properties are presumed to be recovered entirely through sale.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as a deferred tax asset in the Balance Sheet when it is highly probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Current and deferred tax for the year

Current and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they are relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.

IX. Property, plant and equipment

The cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, including relevant borrowing costs for qualifying assets. Expenditure incurred after the property, plant and equipment have been put into operation, such as repairs and maintenance, are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the costs are incurred. Major shut-down and overhaul expenditure is capitalised as the activities undertaken improves the economic benefits expected to arise from the asset.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Assets in the course of construction are capitalised in the assets under construction account. At the point when an asset is operating at management’s intended use, the cost of construction is transferred to the appropriate category of property, plant and equipment and depreciation commences. Costs associated with the commissioning of an asset and any obligatory decommissioning costs are capitalised where the asset is available for use but incapable of operating at normal levels until a period of commissioning has been completed. Revenue generated from production during the trial period is capitalised.

X. Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value. Depreciation is provided on buildings and plant & machinery on a straight-line method and in case of other tangible assets, on written-down value method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except for plant and machinery. In respect of plant and machinery, the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc. The useful lives of plant and machinery has been estimated as 22 years and 30 years for different categories as technically determined.

When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful lives on straight line method. The amortization rates used for various intangible assets are as under:

Freehold land is not depreciated. Leasehold land is amortized over the period of the lease, except where the lease is convertible to freehold land under lease agreements at future dates at no additional cost.

The Company reviews the residual value, useful lives and depreciation method annually and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate on a prospective basis.

Depreciation on the tangible fixed assets of the Company’s assets has been provided on straight-line method as per the estimated useful life of such assets as follows:

XI. Intangible assets

Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

Derecognition of intangible assets

An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

XII. Impairment of non-current assets

At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. Where a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest Company of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation decrease.

Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal of the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation increase.

XIII. Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Costs of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, traded goods and stores and spares are ascertained on weighted average basis. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.

XIV. Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive), as a result of past events, and it is probable that an outflow of resources, that can be reliably estimated, will be required to settle such an obligation.

The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).

When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognized as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.

XV. Financial Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when a Company entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through Profit and Loss are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.

A. Financial assets

a) Recognition and initial measurement

i) The Company initially recognises loans and advances, deposits, debt securities issues and subordinated liabilities on the date on which they originate. All other financial instruments (including regular way purchases and sales of financial assets) are recognised on the trade date, which is the date on which the Company a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. A financial asset or liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at FVTPL, transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.

ii) In case of investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates the Company has chosen to measure its investments at deemed cost.

iii) The Company has elected to apply the requirements pertaining to Level III financial instruments of deferring the difference between the fair value at initial recognition and the transaction price prospectively to transactions entered into on or after the date of transition to Ind AS.

b) Classification

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at; amortised cost, FVOCI or FVTPL A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated at FVTPL:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

- The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding

This category is the most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables. For more information on receivables, refer to Note 14. A debt instrument is classified as FVOCI only if it meets both the of the following conditions and is not recognised at FVTPL;

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

- The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the P&L. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to P&L. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

All other financial assets are classified as measured at FVTPL.

In addition, on initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost or at FVOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

c) Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

d) Impairment

Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance

b) Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at FVTOCI

c) Lease receivables under Ind AS 17

d) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18 (referred to as ‘contractual revenue receivables’ in these illustrative financial statements)

e) Loan commitments which are not measured as at FVTPL

f) Financial guarantee contracts which are not measured as at FVTPL

The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:

I) Trade receivables or contract revenue receivables; and

II) All lease receivables resulting from transactions within the scope of Ind AS 17

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:

i) All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument

ii) Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’ in the P&L. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:

i) Financial assets measured as at amortised cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.

ii) Loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts: ECL is presented as a provision in the balance sheet, i.e. as a liability.

iii) Debt instruments measured at FVTOCI: Since financial assets are already reflected at fair value, impairment allowance is not further reduced from its value. Rather, ECL amount is presented as ‘accumulated impairment amount’ in the OCI.

For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.

The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.

e) Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL.

B. Financial liabilities and equity instruments

a) Classification as debt or equity

Debt and equity instruments issued by a Company entity are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

b) Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Repurchase of the Company’s own equity instruments is recognised and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments.

c) Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at FVTPL’ or ‘other financial liabilities.

Financial liabilities at FVTPL:

Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is either held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.

Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. The net gain or loss recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability and is included in the ‘other gains and losses’ line item in the [statement of comprehensive income/Statement of Profit and Loss].

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

d) Derivative financial instruments

The Company has entered into forward exchange contracts or principal only swap which are in substance of forward exchange contracts to manage its exposure to foreign currency cash flows.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period

e) Reclassification of financial assets

The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.

The following table shows various reclassification and how they are accounted for:

XVI. First time adoption - mandatory exceptions, optional exemptions

a. Overall principle

The Company has prepared the balance sheet as per Ind AS as on the transition date by recognising all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required by Ind AS, not recognising items of assets or liabilities which are not permitted by Ind AS, by reclassifying items from previous GAAP to Ind AS as required under Ind AS, and applying Ind AS in measurement of recognised assets and liabilities. However, this principle is subject to certain exception and certain optional exemptions availed by the Company as detailed below.

b. Derecognition of financial assets and financial liabilities

The Company has applied the derecognition requirements of financial assets and financial liabilities prospectively for transactions occurring on or after the transition date.

c. Classification of debt instruments

The Company has determined the classification of debt instruments in terms of whether they meet the amortised cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria based on the facts and circumstances that existed as of the transition date.

d. Impairment of financial assets

The Company has applied the impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 retrospectively; however, as permitted by Ind AS 101, it has used reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort to determine the credit risk at the date that financial instruments were initially recognised in order to compare it with the credit risk at the transition date. Further, the Company has not undertaken an exhaustive search for information when determining, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, whether there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition, as permitted by Ind AS 101.

e. Assessment of embedded derivatives

The Company has assessed whether an embedded derivative is required to be separated from the host contract and accounted for as a derivative on the basis of the conditions that existed at the later of the date it first became a party to the contract and the date when there has been a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that otherwise would be required under the contract.

f. Deemed cost for property, plant and equipment, investment property, and intangible assets

The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its plant and equipment and intangible assets recognised as of transition date measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.

g. Cumulative translation differences on foreign operations

The Company has not elected the option to reset the cumulative translation differences on foreign operations that exist as of the transition date to zero.

h. Equity investments at FVTOCI

The Company has designated certain investments in equity shares at FVTOCI on the basis of facts and circumstances that existed at the transition date.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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