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Shiva Cement

BSE: 532323|ISIN: INE555C01029|SECTOR: Cement - Mini
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Oct 15, 16:00
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Shiva Cement is not listed on NSE
Mar 16
Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1. Significant Accounting Policies

A. Statement of compliance

Standalone Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India including Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) prescribed under the section 133 of the Comp anies Act, 2013 read with rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and the Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016. The aforesaid financial statements have been approved by the Board of Directors in the meeting held on 21st April,2018.

For all periods up to and including the year ended 31 March 2017, the Company prepared its Standalone financial statements in accordance with requirements of the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (“Previous GAAP”). These are the first Ind AS Standalone Financial Statements of the Company. The date of transition to Ind AS is 1 April, 2016. Refer note 2(Q) below for the details of first-time adoption exemptions availed by the Company.

B. Basis of preparation & presentation

In accordance with the notification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, the Company is required to prepare its Financial Statements as per the Indian Accounting Standards (‘Ind AS’) prescribed under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 as amended with effect from 1st April, 2017. Accordingly, the Company has prepared these Financial Statements which comprise the Balance Sheet as at 31st March, 2018, the Statement of Profit and Loss, the Statements of Cash Flows and the Statement of Changes in Equity for the year ended 31st March, 2018.

The Financial Statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.

Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17, and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realizable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.

In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorized into Level 1,2, or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurements in its entirety, which are described as follows:

- Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;

- Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included within level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and

- Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.

C. Property, Plant and Equipment

The cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, including relevant borrowing costs for qualifying assets and any expected costs of decommissioning.

Spares parts, servicing equipment and standby equipment which can be used only in connection with a particular Plant & Equipment of the Company and their use is expected to be irregular, are capitalised at cost. An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.Property, plant and equipment except freehold land held for use in the production, supply or administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses., if any.

The Company has opted to continue with the carrying value for all of its property, plant and equipment as recognised in the financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind AS i.e. 1st April, 2016, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as its deemed cost as at the date of transition.

Expenditure/ Income during construction period (including financing cost related to borrowed funds for construction or acquisition of qualifying PPE) is included under Capital Work-in-Progress, and the same is allocated to the respective PPE on the completion of their construction. Advances given towards acquisition or construction of PPE outstanding at each reporting date are disclosed as Capital Advances under “Other non-current Assets”.

Depreciation commences when the assets are ready for their intended use. Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value. Depreciation is recognized so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.:

Depreciation on additions to fixed assets is provided on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation and in the case of a new project from the date of commencement of commercial production. Depreciation on deductions / disposals is provided on pro-rata basis upto the date of deduction/disposal.

Spares, servicing equipment and standby equipment, which are capitalised, are depreciated over the useful life of the related fixed asset. The written down value of such spares is charged to statement of profit and loss, on issue for consumption.

Lease improvement cost are amortized over the period of the lease

Capital assets whose ownership does not vest with the Company are amortised based on the estimated useful life as follows:

D. Intangible assets :

Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

Useful life of Intangible assets :

For transition to Ind AS, the Company has opted to continue with carrying value of all its intangible assets recognised as of 1 April, 2016 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of transition date.

E. Impairment of Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets

At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. Where a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation decrease.

Any reversal of the previously recognised impairment loss is limited to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had previously been recognised.

F. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition and construction of qualifying assets, are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset up to the date when the asset is ready for its intended use. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use.

The Company determines the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalization as the actual borrowing costs incurred on that borrowing during the period less any interest income earned on temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets, to the extent that an entity borrows funds specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset. In case if the Company borrows generally and uses the funds for obtaining a qualifying asset, borrowing costs eligible for capitalization are determined by applying a capitalization rate to the expenditures on that asset.

All other borrowing costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

G. Leasing - Operating lease

Lease payments under an operating lease shall be recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

H. Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows:

- Raw materials, fuel, stores & spare parts and packing materials:

Valued at lower of cost and net realisable value (NRV). However, these items are considered to be realisable at cost, if the finished products,in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

- Work -in- progress (WIP), finished goods, stock-in-trade and trial run inventories:

Valued at lower of cost and NRV. Cost of Finished goods and WIP includes cost of raw materials, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost of inventories is computed on weighted average basis.

- Waste / Scrap:

Waste / Scrap inventory is valued at NRV.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

I. Cash and cash equivalents:

Cash and cash equivalent in the Balance Sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

J. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources, that can be reliably estimated, will be required to settle such an obligation.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows to net present value using an appropriate pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. Unwinding of the discount is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as a finance cost. Provisions are reviewed at each reporting date and are adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

A present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a liable estimate of the amount cannot be made, is disclosed as a contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are also disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non -occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

Claims against the Company where the possibility of any outflow of resources in settlement is remote, are not disclosed as contingent liabilities.

Contingent assets are not recognised in financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realised. However, when the realisation of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is not a contingent asset and is recognised.

K. Mines restoration provision

An obligation for restoration, rehabilitation and environmental costs arises when environmental disturbance is caused by the development or ongoing extraction from mines. Costs arising from restoration at closure of the mines and other site preparation work are provided for based on their discounted net present value, with a corresponding amount being capitalised at the start of each project. The amount provided for is recognised, as soon as the obligation to incur such costs arises. These costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the life of the operation through the depreciation of the asset and the unwinding of the discount on the provision. The cost are reviewed periodically and are adjusted to reflect known developments which may have an impact on the cost or life of operations. The cost of the related asset is adjusted for changes in the provision due to factors such as updated cost estimates, new disturbance and revisions to discount rates. The adjusted cost of the asset is depreciated prospectively over the lives of the assets to which they relate. The unwinding of the discount is shown as a finance cost in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

L. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

- Revenue is measured at the fair value of consideration received or receivable taking into account the amount of discounts, volume rebates, outgoing sales taxes and are recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods sold are transferred.

- Difference between the sale price and carrying value of investment is recognised as profit or loss on sale / redemption on investment on trade date of transaction.

- Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).

- Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

M. Employee benefits

(i) Retirement benefit costs and termination benefits

Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are recognized as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.

For defined benefit retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Re-measurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), is reflected immediately in the statement of financial position with a charge or credit recognized in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Re-measurement recognized in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognised in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorized as follows:

- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);

- net interest expense or income; and

- re-measurement

The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in profit or loss in the line item ‘Employee benefits expenses’. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs.

The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the statement of financial position represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.

A liability for a termination benefit is recognized at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognizes any related restructuring costs.

(ii) Short-term and other long-term employee benefits

A liability is recognized for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries, annual leave and sick leave in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.

Liabilities recognized in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.

Liabilities recognized in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date.

N. Taxation

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

(i) Current tax

Current tax is the amount of tax payable based on the taxable profit for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws in the countries where the Company operates and generates taxable income.

(ii) Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is highly probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

(iii) Current and deferred tax for the period

Current and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they are relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.

O. Earnings Per Share

Basic EPS is computed by dividing the net profit or (loss) after tax for the year attributable to the equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, net profit/(loss) after tax for the year attributable to the equity shareholders and the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

P. Financial Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when an entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss (FVTPL)) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.

I. Financial assets

(a) Recognition and initial measurement

i) The Company initially recognises loans and advances, deposits, debt securities issues and subordinated liabilities on the date on which they originate. All other financial instruments (including regular way purchases and sales of financial assets) are recognized on the trade date, which is the date on which the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. A financial asset or liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at FVTPL, transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.

ii) The Company has elected to apply the requirements pertaining to Level III financial instruments of deferring the difference between the fair value at initial recognition and the transaction price prospectively to transactions entered into on or after the date of transition to Ind AS.

(b) Classification of financial assets

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified to be measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) or FVTPL.

A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated at FVTPL:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

- The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A debt instrument is classified as FVTOCI only if it meets both of the following conditions and is not recognised at FVTPL; The asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

All other financial assets are classified as measured at FVTPL.

In addition, on initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost or at FVTOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces and accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains and losses arising on remeasurement recognized in statement of profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in statement of profit or loss incorporates any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset and is included in the ‘other income’ line item.

(c) De-recognition of financial assets

The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognised in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.

On derecognition of a financial asset other than in its entirety (e.g. when the Company retains an option to repurchase part of a transferred asset), the Company allocates the previous carrying amount of the financial asset between the part it continues to recognise under continuing involvement, and the part it no longer recognises on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the transfer. The difference between the carrying amount allocated to the part that is no longer recognised and the sum of the consideration received for the part no longer recognised and any cumulative gain or loss allocated to it that had been recognised in other comprehensive income is recognised in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset. A cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income is allocated between the part that continues to be recognised and the part that is no longer recognised on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts.

(d) Impairment

The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognizing impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost, debt instruments at FVTOCI, lease receivables, trade receivables, other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial asset, and financial guarantees not designated as at FVTPL.

Expected credit losses are the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate (or credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets). The Company estimates cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) through the expected life of that financial instrument.

The Company measures the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk on a

financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses. 12-month expected credit losses are portion of the life-time expected credit losses and represent the lifetime cash shortfalls that will result if default occurs within the 12 months after the reporting date and thus, are not cash shortfalls that are predicted over the next 12 months.

If the Company measured loss allowance for a financial instrument at lifetime expected credit loss model in the previous period, but determines at the end of a reporting period that the credit risk has not increased significantly since initial recognition due to improvement in credit quality as compared to the previous period, the Company again measures the loss allowance based on 12-month expected credit losses.

When making the assessment of whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company uses the change in the risk of a default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument instead of the change in the amount of expected credit losses. To make that assessment, the Company compares the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the reporting date with the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the date of initial recognition and considers reasonable and supportable information, that is available without undue cost or effort, that is indicative of significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition.

For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

Further, for the purpose of measuring lifetime expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables, the Company has used a practical expedient as permitted under Ind AS 109. This expected credit loss allowance is computed based on a provision matrix which takes into account historical credit loss experience and adjusted for forward-looking information.

e) Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Income is recognized on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL. Interest income is recognized in profit or loss and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item.

II. Financial liabilities and equity instruments

a) Classification as debt or equity

Debt and equity instruments issued by a company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

b) Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

c) Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at FVTPL’ or ‘other financial liabilities’.

(i) Financial liabilities at FVTPL:

Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is either held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.

A financial liability is classified as held for trading if:

- It has been incurred principally for the purpose of repurchasing it in the near term; or

- On initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or

- It is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument.

A financial liability other than a financial liability held for trading may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:

- such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise;

- the financial liability forms part of a group of financial assets or financial liabilities or both, which is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Company’s documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the grouping is provided internally on that basis; or

- it forms part of a contract containing one or more embedded derivatives, and Ind AS 109 permits the entire combined contract to be designated as at FVTPL in accordance with Ind AS 109.

Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss. The net gain or loss recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability and is included in the ‘other gains and losses’ line item in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Other financial liabilities:

Other financial liabilities (including borrowings and trade and other payables) are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

d) Reclassification of financial assets:

The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognized gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.

e) De-recognition of financial assets :

The Company derecognizes financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange between with a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in profit or loss.

Q. First time adoption - mandatory exceptions, optional exemptions

a. Overall principle

The Company has prepared the opening Balance Sheet as per Ind AS as of 1st April, 2016 (the transition date) by,

- recognising all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required by Ind AS,

- not recognising items of assets or liabilities which are not permitted by Ind AS,

- by reclassifying items from previous GAAP to Ind AS as required under Ind AS, and

- applying Ind AS in measurement of recognised assets and liabilities.

However, this principle is subject to certain exceptions and certain optional exemptions availed by the Company as detailed below. Since, the financial statements are the first financial statements, the first time adoption - mandatory exceptions and optional exemptions have been explained in detail.

b. Deemed cost

Deemed cost for property, plant and equipment and intangible assets including capital work in progress and intangible assets under development

The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment and intangible assets including capital work in progress and intangible assets under development recognised as of 1st April,2016 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP as its deemed cost as at the date of transition.

c. Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease

The Company has opted to apply the Appendix C of Ind AS 17 - Determining whether an arrangement contains a Lease, to determine whether the arrangements existing as on the transition date contains a lease, on the basis of facts and circumstances existing as at the transition date

d. De-recognition of financial assets and financial liabilities

The Company has applied the de-recognition requirements of financial assets and financial liabilities prospectively for transactions occurring on or after 1st April, 2016 (the transition date).

e. Designation of previously recognised financial instruments

The Company has designated financial liabilities and financial assets at fair value through profit or loss and investments in equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of transition to Ind AS.

f. Impairment of financial assets

The Company has applied the impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 retrospectively; however, as permitted by Ind AS 101, it has used reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort to determine the credit risk at the date that financial instruments were initially recognised in order to compare it with the credit risk at the transition date. Further, the Company has not undertaken an exhaustive search for information when determining, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, whether there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition, as permitted by Ind AS 101.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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