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Moneycontrol.com India | Accounting Policy > Construction & Contracting - Real Estate > Accounting Policy followed by Prozone Intu Properties - BSE: 534675, NSE: PROZONINTU
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Prozone Intu Properties

BSE: 534675|NSE: PROZONINTU|ISIN: INE195N01013|SECTOR: Construction & Contracting - Real Estate
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1. Significant accounting policies

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements and in preparing the opening Ind AS balance sheet at 1 April 2016 for the purposes of the transition to Ind AS, unless otherwise indicated.

A. Financial instruments

(i) Recognition and initial measurement

Trade receivables and debt securities issued are initially recognised when they are originated. All other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

A financial asset or financial liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.

(ii) Classification and subsequent measurement Financial assets

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at

- amortised cost;

- FVOCI - debt investment;

- FVOCI - equity investment; or

- FVTPL

Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.

A financial asset is measured at amortized cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A debt investment is measured at FVOCI if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

On initial recognition of an equity investment that is not held for trading, the Company may irrevocably elect to present subsequent changes in the investment''s fair value in OCI (designates as FVOCI - equity investment). This election is made on an investment-by-investment basis.

All financial assets not classified as measured at amortized cost or FVOCI as described above are measured at FVTPL. This includes all derivative financial assets. On initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortized cost or at FVOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces on accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

Financial assets: Business model assessment

The Company makes an assessment of the objective of the business model in which a financial asset is held at a portfolio level because this best reflects the way the business is managed and information is provided to management. The information considered includes:

- the stated policies and objectives for the portfolio and the operation of those policies in practice. These include whether management''s strategy focuses on earning contractual interest income, maintaining a particular interest rate profit, matching the duration of the financial assets to the duration of any related liabilities or expected cash outflows or realizing cash flows through the sale of the assets;

- how the performance of the portfolio is evaluated and reported to the Company''s management;

- the risk that affect the performance of the business model (and the financial assets held within that business model) and how those risks are managed;

- how managers of the business are compensated - e.g. whether compensation is based on the fair value of the assets managed or the contractual cash flows collected; and

- the frequency, volume and timing of sales of financial assets in prior periods, the reasons for such sales and expectations about future sales activity.

Transfers of financial assets to third parties in transactions that do not qualify for derecognition are not considered sales for this purpose, consistent with the Company''s continuing recognition of the assets.

Financial assets that are held for trading or are managed and whose performance is evaluated on a fair value basis are measured at FVTPL.

Financial assets: Assessment whether contractual cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest

For the purposes of this assessment, ''principal'' is defined as the fair value of the financial asset on initial recognition. ''Interest'' is defined as consideration for the time value of money and for the credit risk associated with the principal amount outstanding during a particular period of time and for other basic lending risks and costs (e.g. liquidity risk and administrative costs), as well as a profit margin.

In assessing whether the contractual cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest, the Company considers the contractual terms of the instrument. This includes assessing whether the financial asset contains a contractual term that could change the timing or amount of contractual cash flows such that it would not meet this condition. In making this assessment, the Company considers:

- contingent events that would change the amount or timing of cash flows;

- terms that may adjust the contractual coupon rate, including variable interest rate features;

- prepayment and extension features; and

- terms that limit the Company''s claim to cash flows from specified assets (e.g. non-recourse features)

A prepayment feature is consistent with the solely payments of principal and interest criterion if the prepayment amount substantially represents unpaid amounts of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding, which may include reasonable additional compensation for early termination of the contract. Additionally, for a financial asset acquired at a significant discount or premium to its contractual par amount, a feature that permits or requires prepayment at an amount that substantially represents the contractual par amount plus accrued (but unpaid) contractual interest (which may also include reasonable additional compensation for early termination) is treated as consistent with this criterion if the fair value of the prepayment feature is insignificant at initial recognition.

Financial assets: Subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial assets at FVTPL- These assets are subsequently measured at fair value. Net gains and losses, including any interest or dividend income, are recognised in profit or loss.

Financial assets at amortised cost- These assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The amortised cost is reduced by impairment losses. Interest income, foreign exchange gains and losses and impairment are recognised in profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is recognised in profit or loss.

Debt investments at FVOCI- These assets are subsequently measured at fair value. Interest income under the effective interest method, foreign exchange gains and losses and impairment are recognised in profit or loss. Other net gains and losses are recognised in OCI. On derecognition, gains and losses accumulated in OCI are reclassified to profit or loss.

Equity investments at FVOCI - These assets are subsequently measured at fair value. Dividends are recognised as income in profit or loss unless the dividend clearly represents a recovery of part of the cost of the investment. Other net gains and losses are recognised in OCI and are not reclassified to profit or loss.

Financial liabilities: Classification, subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held for trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognised in profit or loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is also recognised in profit or loss.

(iii) Derecognition

Financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.

If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised.

Financial liabilities

The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in profit or loss.

(iv) Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

B. Property, plant and equipment

(i) Recognition and measurement

Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost, which includes capitalised borrowing costs, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates, any directly attributable cost of bringing the item to its working condition for its intended use and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

The cost of a self-constructed item of property, plant and equipment comprises the cost of materials and direct labour, any other costs directly attributable to bringing the item to working condition for its intended use, and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in profit or loss.

(ii) Transition to Ind AS

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at 1 April 2016, measured as per the previous GAAP, and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of such property, plant and equipment (refer note 2.3).

(iii) Subsequent expenditure

Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.

(iv) Depreciation

Depreciation on Property, Plant and Equipment of the company has been provided as per written down value method as per the estimated useful lives of the respective item of Property, Plant and Equipment indicated in Part ''C'' of Schedule II of the Act.

(v) Capital work-in progress and capital advances

Capital work-in progress comprises of the cost of property, plant and equipment that are not yet ready for their intended use as at the balance sheet date. Advances given towards acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each balance sheet date are disclosed as ''Other non-current assets''.

C. Investment Property

(i) Recognition and measurement

Investment properties are held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation, or both, but not for sale in the ordinary course of business, use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes. Investment properties are measured initially at their cost of acquisition. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing cost if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment property is measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

(ii) Transition to Ind AS

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its investment properties recognised as at 1 April 2016, measured as per the previous GAAP, and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of such investment properties (refer note 2.3).

(iii) Subsequent expenditure

Subsequent costs are included in the asset''s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in statement of profit and loss as incurred. Any gain or loss on disposal of investment property calculated as the difference between the net proceeds from disposal and the carrying amount of the item is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Though the Company measures investment property using cost-based measurement, the fair value of investment property is disclosed in the note no 4 of the Ind AS financial statements.

(iv) Depreciation

Depreciation on Investment Property has been provided as per written down value method as per the useful lives indicated in Part ''C'' of Schedule II of the Act which is 60 years.

D. Impairment

(i) Impairment of financial instruments

The Company recognises loss allowances for expected credit losses on:

- financial assets measured at amortized cost; and

- financial assets measured at FVOCI- debt investments.

At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether financial assets carried at amortized cost and debt securities at FVOCI are credit impaired. A financial asset is ''credit impaired'' when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset have occurred.

The Company measures loss allowances at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses, except for the following, which are measured as 12 month expected credit losses:

- debt securities that are determined to have low credit risk at the reporting date; and

- other debt securities and bank balances for which credit risk (i.e. the risk of default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument) has not increased significantly since initial recognition.

Trade and other receivables

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition. Trade receivables are tested for impairment on a specific basis after considering the sanctioned credit limits, security like letters of credit, security deposit collected, etc. and expectations about future cash flows.

Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument.

12-month expected credit losses are the portion of expected credit losses that result from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date (or a shorter period if the expected life of the instrument is less than 12 months).

In all cases, the maximum period considered when estimating expected credit losses is the maximum contractual period over which the Company is exposed to credit risk.

When determining whether the credit risk of a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition and when estimating expected credit losses, the Company considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Company''s historical experience and informed credit assessment and including forward looking information.

Measurement of expected credit losses

Expected credit losses are a probability weighted estimate of credit losses. Credit losses are measured as the present value of all cash shortfalls (i.e. the difference between the cash flows due to the Company in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive).

Presentation of allowance for expected credit losses in the balance sheet

Loss allowances for financial assets measured at amortised cost are deducted from the gross carrying amount of the assets.

For debt securities at FVOCI, the loss allowance is charged to profit or loss and is recognised in OCI.

Write off

The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) to the extent that there is no realistic prospect of recovery. This is generally the case when the Company determines that the debtor does not have assets or sources of income that could generated sufficient cash flows to be subject to enforcement activities in order to comply with the Company''s procedures for recovery of amounts due.

(ii) Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company''s non-financial assets, other than deferred tax assets, are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated. Goodwill is tested annually for impairment.

For impairment testing, assets that do not generate independent cash inflows are grouped together into cash generating units (CGUs). Each CGU represents the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs.

Goodwill arising from a business combination is allocated to CGUs or groups of CGUs that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

The recoverable amount of a CGU (or an individual asset) is the higher of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the CGU (or the asset).

The Company''s corporate assets (e.g. central office building for providing support to various CGUs) do not generate independent cash inflows. To determine impairment of a corporate asset, recoverable amount is determined for the CGUs to which the corporate asset belongs.

An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Impairment loss recognised in respect of a CGU is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets of the CGU (or group of CGUs) on a pro rata basis.

An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not subsequently reversed. In respect of other assets for which impairment loss has been recognised in prior periods, the Company reviews at each reporting date whether there is any indication that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. Such a reversal is made only to the extent that the asset''s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

E. Employee benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid, if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee, and the amount of obligation can be estimated reliably.

(ii) Defined contribution plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contribution into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts.

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Government administered provident fund scheme. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are recognised as an employee benefit expense in profit or loss in the periods during which the related services are rendered by employees.

Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.

(iii) Defined benefit plans

A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. The Company''s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount and deducting the fair value of any plan assets.

The calculation of defined benefit obligation is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the calculation results in a potential asset for the Company, the recognised asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan (''the asset ceiling''). In order to calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any minimum funding requirements.

Remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised in OCI. The Company determines the net interest expense (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then-net defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plan are recognised in profit or loss.

When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service (''past service cost''or''past service gain'') or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognised immediately in profit or loss. The Company recognises gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.

(iv) Other long-term employee benefits

The Company net obligation in respect of long-term employee benefits other than post-employment benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any related assets is deducted. The obligation is measured on the basis of an annual independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Remeasurement gains or losses are recognises in profit or loss in the period in which they arise.

F. Provisions (other than for employee benefits)

A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflows of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows (representing the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date) at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as finance cost. Expected future operating losses are not provided for.

G. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

(i) Rendering of services

Revenue from management consultancy is recognized on accrual basis as per the terms and conditions of the contract.

(ii) Dividend Income

Dividend income is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on the date the entity''s right to receive the payments is established.

(iii) Rental income

Rent income is recognised on time proportionate basis over the period of the rent.

All revenue is stated exclusive of goods and service tax.

H. Leases

(i) Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease

At inception of an arrangement, it is determined whether the arrangement is or contains a lease.

At inception or on reassessment of the arrangement that contains a lease, the payments and other consideration required by such an arrangement are separated into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values. If it is concluded for a finance lease that it is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then an asset and a liability are recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset. The liability is reduced as payments are made and an imputed finance cost on the liability is recognised using the incremental borrowing rate.

(ii) Assets held under leases

Leases of property, plant and equipment that transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. The leased assets are measured initially at an amount equal to the lower of their fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Subsequent to initial recognition, the assets are accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to similar owned assets.

Assets held under leases that do not transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership (i.e. operating leases) are not recognised in the Company''s Balance Sheet.

(iii) Lease payments

Payments made under operating leases are generally recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease unless such payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor''s expected inflationary cost increases.

Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance charge is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

I. Recognition of interest income or expense

Interest income or expense is recognised using the effective interest method.

The ''effective interest rate'' is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument to:

- the gross carrying amount of the financial asset; or

- the amortised cost of the financial liability.

In calculating interest income and expense, the effective interest rate is applied to the gross carrying amount of the asset (when the asset that have become credit-impaired) or to the amortised cost of the liability. However, for financial assets that have become credit-impaired subsequent to initial recognition, interest income is calculated by applying the effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset. If the asset is no longer credit-impaired, then the calculation of interest income reverts to the gross basis.

J. Income tax

Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognised in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination or to an item recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.

(i) Current tax

Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax reflects the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received after considering the uncertainty, if any, related to income taxes. It is measured using tax rates (and tax laws) enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts, and it is intended to realise the asset and settle the liability on a net basis or simultaneously.

(ii) Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for the financial reporting purposes and the corresponding amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is also recognised in respect of carried forward tax losses and tax credits. Deferred tax is not recognised for:

- temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction;

- temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint arrangements to the extent that the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and

- taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. The existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. Therefore, in case of a history of recent losses, the Company recognises a deferred tax asset only to the extent that it has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realised. Deferred tax assets - unrecognised or recognised, are reviewed at each reporting date and are recognised / reduced to the extent that it is probable respectively that the related tax benefit will be realised.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax assets and liabilities will be realised simultaneously.

Minimum Alternate Tax (''MAT'') credit entitlement is generally recognised as a deferred tax asset if it is probable (more likely than not) that MAT credit can be used in future years to reduce the regular tax liability.

K. Borrowing cost

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences relating to foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of an asset which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

L. Foreign exchange translation and accounting of foreign exchange transaction

(i) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction. However, for practical reasons, the Company uses a monthly average rate if the average rate approximates the actual rate at the date of the transactions.

(ii) Conversion

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are reported using the closing rate at the reporting date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

(iii) Treatment of Exchange Difference

Exchange differences arising on settlement/ restatement of short-term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company are recognized as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

M. Earnings per share

The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) data for its ordinary shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for own shares held. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders and the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding, adjusted for own shares held, for the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.

N. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent comprise of cash on hand and at banks including cheques on hand, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

O. Recent accounting pronouncements

Standards issued but not yet effective

(i) Appendix B to Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration:

On March 28, 2018, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (the MCA) notified the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards Amendment Rules 2018 containing Appendix B to Ind AS 21 Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration which clarifies the date of transaction for the purpose of determining the exchange rate to use on initial recognition of the related asset, expense or income (or part of it) is the date on which an entity initially recognises the nonmonetary asset or non-monetary liability arising from the payment or receipt of advance consideration towards such assets, expenses or income. If there are multiple payments or receipts in advance, then an entity must determine transaction date for each payment or receipts of advance consideration. The amendment will come into force from April 1, 2018. The Company is evaluating the impact of this amendment on its financial statements.

(ii) Ind AS 115 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Ind AS 115 establishes a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers. Ind AS 115 will supersede the current revenue recognition standard Ind AS 18 Revenue, Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts when it becomes effective.

The core principle of Ind AS 115 is that an entity should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Specifically, the standard introduces a 5-step approach to revenue recognition:

- Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer

- Step 2: Identify the performance obligation in contract

- Step 3: Determine the transaction price

- Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

- Step 5: Recognise revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation

Under Ind AS 115, an entity recognises revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied, i.e. when ''control'' of the goods or services underlying the particular performance obligation is transferred to the customer.

The company is evaluating the requirements of the IND AS 115 and the effect on the financial statements is being evaluated.

2.3 First time adoption of Ind AS

Explanation of transition to Ind AS:

As stated in Note 2.1 of the standalone Ind AS financial statements, these are the Company''s first standalone financial statements prepared in accordance with Ind AS. For the year ended 31 March 2017, the Company has prepared its standalone financial statements in accordance with Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, notified under section 133 of the Act and other relevant provisions of the Act (''previous GAAP'').

The accounting policies set out in Note 2.2 have been applied in preparing these standalone financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2018 including the comparative information for the year ended 31 March 2017 and the opening standalone Ind AS balance sheet on the date of transition i.e. 1 April 2016.

In preparing its standalone Ind AS balance sheet as at 1 April 2016 and in preparing the comparative information for the year ended 31 March 2017, the Company has adjusted amounts reported previously in standalone financial statements prepared in accordance with previous GAAP. The below note explains the principal adjustments made by the Company in restating its standalone financial statements prepared in accordance with previous GAAP, and how the transition from previous GAAP to Ind AS has affected the Company''s standalone financial position, standalone financial performance and standalone cash flows.

A) Exemptions and exceptions availed

1) Ind-AS optional exemptions :

Ind AS 101 allows first time adopters certain exemptions from the retrospective application of certain requirements under Ind AS. The Company has applied the following exemptions:

a) Deemed cost

As per Ind AS 101 an entity may elect to:

(i) measure an item of property, plant and equipment at the date of transition at its fair value and use that fair value as its deemed cost at that date

(ii) use a previous GAAP revaluation of an item of property, plant and equipment at or before the date of transition as deemed cost at the date of the revaluation, provided the revaluation was, at the date of the revaluation, broadly comparable to:

- fair value;

- or cost or depreciated cost under Ind AS adjusted to reflect, for example, changes in a general or specific price index.

(iii) use carrying values of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and investment properties as on the date of transition to Ind AS (which are measured in accordance with previous GAAP and after making adjustments relating to decommissioning liabilities prescribed under Ind AS 101) if there has been no change in its functional currency on the date of transition.

This exemption can also be used for intangible assets covered by Ind AS 38 Intangible Assets and investment property covered by Ind AS 40 Investment Properties. As permitted by Ind AS 101, the Company has elected to measure all of its property, plant and equipment and investment property at their previous GAAP carrying value.

b) Investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates

Ind AS 101 provides an exemption to the first-time adopter to measure an investment in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates at:

a) cost determined in accordance with Ind AS 27; or

b) deemed cost, which shall be its:

i) fair value at the entity''s date of transition to Ind ASs in its separate financial statements; or

ii) previous GAAP carrying amount at that date.

The Company has elected fair value at the date of transition as deemed cost for its investment in each subsidiary, joint venture or associate.

c) For financial instruments, wherein fair market values are not available (viz. interest free and below market rate security deposits or loans) the Company has elected to adopt fair value recognition prospectively to transactions entered after the date of transition.

2) Ind AS mandatory exceptions:

a) Estimates

An entity estimates in accordance with Ind AS at the date of transition to Ind AS shall be consistent with estimates made for the same date in accordance with previous GAAP (after adjustments to reflect any difference in accounting policies), unless there is objective evidence that those estimates were in error. Ind AS estimates at 1 April 2016 are consistent with the estimates as at the same date made in conformity with previous GAAP apart from the following items where application of Indian GAAP did not require estimation:

- FVTOCI - unquoted equity shares, compulsorily convertible preference shares and debt securities.

- FVTPL - investment in mutual funds

- Determination of the discounted value for financial instruments carried at amortised cost.

- Impairment of financial assets based on expected credit loss model

The estimates used by the Company to present these amounts in accordance with Ind AS reflect conditions at 1 April 2016, the date of transition to Ind AS and as of 31 March 2017.

b) Impairment of financial assets

Ind AS 101 requires an entity to assess and determine the impairment allowance on financial assets as per Ind AS 109 using the reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort to determine the credit risk at the date that financial instruments which were initially recognised and compare that to the credit risk at the date of transition to Ind AS. The Company has applied this exception prospectively.

B) Transition to Ind AS - Reconciliations

The following reconciliations provide a quantification of the effect of significant differences arising from the transition from previous GAAP to Ind AS in accordance with Ind AS 1 01 :

I. Reconciliation of Balance sheet as at 1 April 2016 and 31 March 2017

II. Reconciliation of Total Comprehensive Income for the year ended 31 March 2017

III. Reconciliation of Equity as at 1 April 2016 and 31 March 2017 between previous GAAP and IND AS The presentation requirements under Previous GAAP differs from Ind AS and hence Previous GAAP information has been regrouped for ease of reconciliation with Ind AS. The Regrouped Previous GAAP information is derived from the Financial Statements of the Company prepared in accordance with Previous GAAP.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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