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Orient Cement

BSE: 535754|NSE: ORIENTCEM|ISIN: INE876N01018|SECTOR: Cement - Major
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1.1 Summary of significant accounting policies

(a) Property, plant and equipment

Capital work in progress, plant and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are met.

Land and buildings are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation on buildings and impairment losses, if any.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of the asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

Depreciation is provided under straight line basis using the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows -

Depreciation on fixed assets added / disposed-off during the year is provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition/disposal. The management has estimated, supported by technical assessment by experts, the useful lives of certain plant and equipment as 5 to 20 years. These lives are lower than those indicated in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

b) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Internally generated intangible assets, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and expenditure is reflected in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which the expenditure is incurred.

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable. If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

A summary of the policies applied to the Company’s intangible assets is, as follows:

(c) Current versus non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current / non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

(d) Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease.

Where the Company is lessee

A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease. Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Assets subject to operating leases are included in property, plant and equipment. Lease income on an operating lease is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

(e) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the borrowings and exchange differences to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the year they occur.

(f) Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

For assets, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognised impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually at the CGU level, as appropriate, and when circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

(g) Government grants

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.

When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset i.e. by equal annual instalments. When loans or similar assistance are provided by governments or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favourable interest is regarded as a government grant. The loan or assistance is initially recognised and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities in respect of loans / assistances received subsequent to the date of transition.

(h.) Inventories

Raw materials and stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials and stores and spares is determined on moving weighted average method.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on annual weighted average basis.

Saleable scrap, whose cost is not identifiable, is valued at net realisable value.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(i) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the “principal” in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks.

Based on the Educational Material on Ind AS 18 issued by the ICAI, the Company considers that recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account. This is for the reason that it is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty. However, Sales tax/ Value Added tax (VAT) / Goods and Service tax (GST) is not received by the Company on its own account. It is collected on behalf of the government and accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.

The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognised:

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.

Sale of power

Revenue from sale of power is recognised when delivered and is measured based on rates as per bilateral contractual agreements with buyers / at rate arrived at based on the principles laid down under the relevant tariff regulations as notified by the regulatory bodies, as applicable.

(j) Foreign currency transactions and balances

The financial statements are presented in INR, which is the Company’s functional currency. Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded at functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.

Foreign currency monetary items are translated using the functional currency spot rates prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement or translation of monetary items are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.

(k) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of Provident Fund and Superannuation Schemes are defined contribution schemes. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the respective funds. The Company recognises contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognised as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognised as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity liability is funded defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation done on projected unit credit method at the balance sheet date.

Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through Other Comprehensive Income in the period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.

The Company treats accumulated leaves expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the end of each financial year. The Company presents the leave as current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement beyond 12 months after the reporting date. Where the Company has unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for the period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non-current liability. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred.

(l) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognised outside Statement of Profit and Loss is recognised outside Statement of Profit and Loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside Statement of Profit and Loss is recognised outside Statement of Profit and Loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity).

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognises MAT credit available as deferred tax asset only to the extent it is probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of MAT credit to be utilised during the specified period, i.e., the period for which such credit is allowed to be utilised.

(m) Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company’s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which the customers of the Company are located.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment on a case to case basis applying the ratio, appropriate to each relevant case. Revenue and expenses, which relate to the enterprise as a whole and are not allocable to segment on a reasonable basis, are included under the head “Unallocated”.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(n) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(o) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(p) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(q) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

(r) Employee stock options

Certain employees of the Company receive remuneration in the form of share-based payments, whereby employees render services as consideration for equity instruments (equity-settled transactions).

The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value at the date when the grant is made using an appropriate valuation model. The cost is recognised, together with a corresponding increase in reserves, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled in employee benefits expense.

Service and non-market performance conditions are not taken into account when determining the grant date fair value of awards, but the likelihood of the conditions being met is assessed as part of the Company’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. Market performance conditions are reflected within the grant date fair value.

When the terms of an equity-settled award are modified, the minimum expense recognised is the expense had the terms had not been modified, if the original terms of the award are met. An additional expense is recognised for any modification that increases the total fair value of the share-based payment transaction, or is otherwise beneficial to the employee as measured at the date of modification. Where an award is cancelled by the entity or by the counterparty, any remaining element of the fair value of the award is expensed immediately through profit or loss.

The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.

(s) Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets

Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.

Subsequent measurement

Subsequent measurement of financial assets is described below -Debt instruments at amortised cost

A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.

Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income, subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognised in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to the Statement of Profit and Loss, even on sale of investment.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

Impairment of financial assets

Financial assets, other than those at FVTPL, are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of each reporting period. The Company recognises a loss allowance for expected credit losses on financial asset. In case of trade receivables, the Company follows the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments for recognition of impairment loss allowance.

Financial liabilities

Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

Subsequent measurement

Loans and borrowings

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the liabilities are derecognised.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

a. Includes RS.859.40 lacs (31st March, 2017: RS.1,027.68 lacs) the mutation whereof in the Company’s name is pending.

b. Includes H Nil (31st March, 2017: RS.410.03 lacs) which are still in the name of demerged company and yet to be transferred in the Company’s name.

c. For charge created on Property, plant and equipment of the Company towards borrowings, refer Note 15.

d. For Property, plant and equipment existing on 1st April, 2015 i.e its date of transition to Ind AS, the Company has used previous GAAP carrying values as deemed cost. Subsequent measurement is at cost.

a. For Intangible assets existing on 1st April, 2015 i.e its date of transition to Ind AS, the Company has used previous GAAP carrying values as deemed cost. Subsequent measurement is at cost.

a. Trade receivables are non-interest bearing and are generally on terms of 0 to 90 days.

b. Trade receivables are pledged against the borrowings of the Company as referred in Note 15.

c. For ageing analysis of trade receivables, refer Note 41.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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