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HT Media

BSE: 532662|NSE: HTMEDIA|ISIN: INE501G01024|SECTOR: Media & Entertainment
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Dec 10, 16:00
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VOLUME 16,547
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1.1 Summary of significant accounting policies

a) Foreign currencies

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition. However, for practical reasons, the Company uses an average rate if the average approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on restatement of the Company’s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

Exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency loans obtained or re-financed on or before March 31, 2016:

- Exchange differences on long-term foreign currency monetary items relating to acquisition of depreciable assets are adjusted to the carrying cost of the assets and depreciated over the balance life of the assets in accordance with option available under Ind-AS 101 (First time adoption).

Exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency loans obtained or re-financed on or after April 1, 2016:

- The exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency loans obtained or re-financed on or after April 1, 2016 is charged off or credited to Statement of Profit & Loss account under Ind-AS.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions.

b) Fair value measurement

The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives and certain investments at fair value at each reporting/ balance sheet date.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability

The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by reassessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.

This Note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes :

- Disclosures for valuation methods, significant estimates and assumptions (Note39)

- Quantitative disclosures of fair value measurement hierarchy (Note 39)

- Investment in unquoted equity shares (Note 6A & 6B)

- Investment properties (Note 4)

- Financial instruments (including those carried at amortised cost) (Note 39)

c) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks.

Goods and Service Tax (GST) is not received by the Company on its own account. Rather, it is tax collected on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.

The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognised:

Advertisements

Revenue is recognized as and when advertisement is published/ displayed. Revenue from advertisement is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.

Sale of Newspaper & Publications, Waste Paper and Scrap

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.

Management also extends a right to return to its customers which it believes is a form of variable consideration.

Printing Job Work

Revenue from printing job work is recognised by reference to stage of completion of job work as per terms of agreement. Revenue from job work is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates, if any.

Airtime Revenue

Revenue from radio broadcasting is recognized on an accrual basis on the airing of client’s commercials. Revenue from radio broadcasting is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates, if any.

Revenue from online advertising

Revenue from digital platforms by display of internet advertisements are typically contracted for a period ranging between zero to twelve months. Revenue in this respect is recognized over the period of the contract, in accordance with the established principles of accrual accounting and is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates, if any. Unearned revenues are reported on the balance sheet as deferred revenue.

Revenue from subscription of packages of placement ofjob postings on ‘shine.com’ is recognized at the time the job postings are displayed based upon customer usage patterns, or upon expiry of the subscription package whichever is earlier and is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates, if any.

Revenue from Job Fair and Resume Services

Revenue from Job Fair and Resume services is recognised upon completion terms of the contract with customers and is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates, if any.

Interest income

For all debt instruments measured either at amortised cost, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortised cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in Other Income in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Dividends

Revenue is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.

Rental Income

Rental Income arising from operating leases on investment properties is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the lease terms and is included in revenue in the Statement of Profit or Loss due to its operating nature unless either:

- Another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which use benefit derived from the leased asset is diminished, even if the rentals are not on that basis, or

- The rentals are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases. If rentals vary according to factors other than inflation, then this condition is not met.

d) Government grants

Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.

When the Company receives grants for purchase of property, plant and equipment, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to Statement of Profit and Loss over the expected useful life of the asset.

e) Taxes

Current income tax

Tax expense is the aggregate amount included in the determination of profit or loss for the period in respect of current tax and deferred tax.

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date.

Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss. Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

GST/ value added taxes paid on acquisition of assets or on incurring expenses

Expenses and assets are recognised net of the amount of GST/ value added taxes paid, except:

- When the tax incurred on a purchase of assets or services is not recoverable from the taxation authority, in which case, the tax paid is recognised as part of the cost of acquisition of the asset or as part of the expense item, as applicable

- When receivables and payables are stated with the amount of GST included

The net amount of tax recoverable from, or payable to, the taxation authority is included as part of receivables or payables in the Balance Sheet.

f) Discontinued operations

A disposal group qualifies as discontinued operation if it is a component of an entity that either has been disposed of, or is classified as held for sale, and:

- Represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations,

- Is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose off a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations

Or

- Is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.

Discontinued operations are excluded from the results of continuing operations and are presented as a single amount as profit or loss after tax from discontinued operations in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

All other notes to the financial statements mainly include amounts for continuing operations, unless otherwise mentioned.

g) Property, plant and equipment

The Company has applied for one time transition option of considering the carrying cost of Property,

Plant and Equipment on the transition date i.e. April 1, 2015 as the deemed cost under Ind-AS.

Property, plant and equipment and Capital Work-in progress are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met.

Cost comprises the purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Recognition:

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be recognised as an asset if, and only if:

(a) it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; and

(b) the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

All other expenses on existing assets, including day-to- day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are met.

Value for individual assets acquired from ‘The Hindustan Times Limited’ (the holding company) in an earlier year is allocated based on the valuation carried out by independent expert at the time of acquisition. Other assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The Company identifies and determines cost of asset significant to the total cost of the asset having useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining life.

Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:

The Company, based on technical assessment made by the management depreciates certain assets over estimated useful lives which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule ll to the Companies Act, 2013. The management has estimated, supported by technical assessment, the useful lives of certain plant and machinery as 16 to 21.1 years. These useful lives are higher than those indicated in Schedule II. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

Depreciation on the property, plant and equipment is provided over the useful life of assets as specified in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Property, Plant and Equipment which are added/disposed off during the year, depreciation is provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the month of addition/deletion.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is derecognised.

Modification or extension to an existing asset, which is of capital nature and which becomes an integral part thereof is depreciated prospectively over the remaining useful life of that asset.

Expenditure directly relating to construction activity is capitalized. Indirect expenditure incurred during construction period is capitalized as a part of indirect construction cost to the extent the expenditure is related to construction or is incidental thereto. Other indirect costs incurred during the construction periods which are not related to construction activity nor are incidental thereto are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss. Reinvested income earned during the construction period is adjusted against the total of indirect expenditure.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

h) Investment properties

Investment properties are properties (land and buildings) that are held for long-term rental yields and/or for capital appreciation. Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.

The Company depreciates building component of investment property over 30 years from the date property is ready for possession.

Though the Company measures investment property using cost based measurement, the fair value of investment property is disclosed in the notes. Fair values are determined based on an annual evaluation performed by an accredited external independent valuer.

On transition to Ind-AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its Investment properties recognised as at April 1, 2015 measured as per the Indian GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the Investment Properties.

Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed off or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period of derecognition.

i) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and the related expenditure is reflected in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.

Value for individual software license acquired from the holding company in an earlier year is allocated based on the valuation carried out by an independent expert at the time of acquisition.

On transition to Ind-AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its Intangible assets recognised as at April 1, 2015 measured as per the Indian GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the Intangible assets.

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable. If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized on straight line basis using the estimated useful life as follows:

j) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized, if any. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.

k) Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing costs (Refer note 35). Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Leasehold improvements represent expenses incurred towards civil works, interiors furnishings, etc. on the leased premises at various locations.

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Company as a lessor

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognised on straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.

l) Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows :

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

m) Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded Company’s or other available fair value indicators.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year. To estimate cash flow projections beyond periods covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts, the Company extrapolates cash flow projections in the budget using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified. In any case, this growth rate does not exceed the long-term average growth rate for the products, industries, or country or countries in which the entity operates, or for the market in which the asset is used.

Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

An assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognised impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the Statement of Profit or Loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case, the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually at the CGU level, as appropriate, and when circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired.

n) Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the Statement of Profit and Loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

o) Retirement and other employee benefits

Short term employee benefits and defined contribution plans:

All employee benefits payable/available within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages and bonus etc. are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity

Gratuity is a defined benefit scheme. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method.

The Company recognizes termination benefit as a liability and an expense when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the termination benefits fall due more than 12 months after the balance sheet date, they are measured at present value of future cash flows using the discount rate determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on government bonds.

Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect ofthe asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the perio d in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.

Past service costs are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on the earlier of:

- The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and

- The date that the Company recognises related restructuring cost

Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset.

The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss:

- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and

- Net interest expense or income

Compensated Absences

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, are immediately taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date. Where Company has the unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for a period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non- current liability.

p) Share-based payments

Employees (including senior executives) of the Company receive remuneration in the form of share-based payments, whereby employees render services as consideration for equity instruments (equity-settled transactions).

Equity-settled transactions

The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value at the date when the grant is made using an appropriate valuation model. The Company has availed option under Ind-AS 101, to apply intrinsic value method to the options already vested before the date of transition and applied Ind-AS 102 Share-based payment to equity instruments that remain unvested as of transition date.

That cost is recognised, together with a corresponding increase in share-based payment (SBP) reserves in equity, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled in employee benefits expense. The cumulative expense recognised for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The Statement of Profit and Loss expense or credit for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognised as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognised in employee benefits expense.

Service and non-market performance conditions are not taken into account when determining the grant date fair value of awards, but the likelihood of the conditions being met is assessed as part of the Company’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. Market performance conditions are reflected within the grant date fair value. Any other conditions attached to an award, but without an associated service requirement, are considered to be non-vesting conditions. Non-vesting conditions are reflected in the fair value of an award and lead to an immediate expensing of an award unless there are also service and/or performance conditions.

No expense is recognised for awards that do not ultimately vest because non-market performance and/or service conditions have not been met. Where awards include a market or non-vesting condition, the transactions are treated as vested irrespective of whether the market or non-vesting condition is satisfied, provided that all other performance and/or service conditions are satisfied.

When the terms of an equity-settled award are modified, the minimum expense recognised is the expense had the terms had not been modified, if the original terms of the award are met. An additional expense is recognised for any modification that increases the total fair value of the share-based payment transaction, or is otherwise beneficial to the employee as measured at the date of modification. Where an award is cancelled by the entity or by the counterparty, any remaining element of the fair value of the award is expensed immediately through profit or loss.

The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.

q) Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets

Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.

Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in three categories:

- Debt instruments at amortised cost

- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

Debt instruments at amortised cost

A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables. For more information on receivables, refer to Note 39.

Debt instruments at FVTPL

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’).

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as “Finance income from mutual funds” under the head “Other Income”.

Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind-AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind-AS 103 applies are Ind-AS classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on Initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

De-recognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either

(a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind-AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance

b) Lease receivables under Ind-AS 17

c) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind-AS 11 and Ind-AS 18 (referred to as ‘contractual revenue receivables’ in these financial statements).

The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:

- Trade receivables or contract revenue receivables; and

- All lease receivables resulting from transactions within the scope of Ind-AS 17

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’ in the P&L. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:

- Financial assets measured as at amortised cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.

For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.

The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.

Financial liabilities

Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts and derivative financial instruments.

Subsequent measurement

The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. This category includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind-AS 109.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind-AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the Statement of Profit or Loss.

Loans and borrowings

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the ElR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The ElR amortisation is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

This category generally applies to borrowings. For more information refer Note 14.

De-recognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the Statement of Profit or Loss.

Embedded derivatives

An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid (combined) instrument that also includes a nonderivative host contract - with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument vary in a way similar to a stand-alone derivative. An embedded derivative causes some or all of the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract to be modified according to a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract. Reassessment only occurs if there is either a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that would otherwise be required or a reclassification of a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss.

If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope of Ind-AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind-AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

r) Derivative financial Instruments

Initial recognition and subsequent measurement

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, call spread options, coupon only swaps and interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks, respectively. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

The purchase contracts that meet the definition of a derivative under Ind-AS 109 are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss.

s) Cash dividend and non- cash distribution to equity holders of the parent

The Company recognises a liability to make cash or non-cash distributions to equity holders of the parent when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorised when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognised directly in equity.

Non-cash distributions are measured at the fair value of the assets to be distributed with fair value remeasurement recognised directly in equity.

Upon distribution of non-cash assets, any difference between the carrying amount of the liability and the carrying amount of the assets distributed is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

t) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.

u) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest expense, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company measures EBITDA on the face of profit/ (loss) from continuing operations. In the measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.

v) Investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates

An investor, regardless of the nature of its involvement with an entity (the investee), shall determine whether it is a parent by assessing whether it controls the investee.

An investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee.

Thus, an investor controls an investee if and only if the investor has all the following:

(a) power over the investee;

(b) exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and

(c) the ability to use its power over the investee to affect the amount of the investor’s returns.

An associate is an entity over which the Company has significant influence. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee, but is not control or joint control over those policies.

The considerations made in determining significant influence are similar to those necessary to determine control over subsidiaries.

The Company has elected to recognize its investments in subsidiary and associate companies at cost in accordance with the option available in Ind-AS 27, ‘Separate Financial Statements’. Except where investments accounted for at cost shall be accounted for in accordance with Ind-AS 105, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations, when they are classified as held for sale.

Investment carried at cost will be tested for impairment as per Ind-AS 36.

Investment in Joint venture shall be recognized at FVTOCI, all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity

w) Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing:

- the profit attributable to owners of the Company

- by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in equity shares issued during the year and excluding treasury shares.

Diluted earnings per share

Diluted earnings per share adjust the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account:

- the after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and

- the weighted average number of additional equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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