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GSS Infotech

BSE: 532951|NSE: GSS|ISIN: INE871H01011|SECTOR: Computers - Software Medium & Small
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

Notes forming part of the standalone financial statements

(All amounts in Indian Rupees, except share data and where otherwise stated)

1 Company Information

GSS Infotech Limited (''the Company'') was incorporated on 13th October, 2003 under the Companies Act, 1956. The Registered office of the Company is situated at Ground Floor, Wing-B, N heights, Plot No. 12, TSIIC Software Units Layout, Madhapur, Serilingampally Hyderabad Rangareddi/Telangana - 500081, India. The Company is primarily engaged in the business of IT & ITES

2 Basis of preparation of financial statements

2.1 Statement of Compliance

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance of Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as per the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules 2015 notified under Section 133 of Companies Act 2013 (the ''Act'') and other relevant provisions of the Act.

The Company''s financial statements up to and for the year ended March 31,2017 were prepared in accordance with the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules 2006, notified under Section 133 of Companies Act 2013 (the ''Act'') and other relevant provisions of the Act.

As these are the first financial statements prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS), Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards has been applied. An explanation of how the transition to Ind AS has affected the previously reported financial position, financial performance of the Company is provided in Note 39.

The financial statements were authorised for issue by the Company''s Board of Directors on May 28, 2018. Details of the accounting policies are included in Note 3.

2.2 Basis of measurement

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value or amortised cost.

2.3 Functional currency

The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees, which is the functional currency of the Company. Functional currency of an entity is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates.

All amounts are in Indian Rupees INR except share data, unless otherwise stated.

2.4 Operating cycle

All the assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013.

Assets:

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting date; or

d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date.

Liabilities:

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be settled in the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting date; or

d) the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current assets/ liabilities include the current portion of non-current assets/ liabilities respectively. All other assets/ liabilities are classified as non-current.

2.5 Critical accounting judgements and key sources of estimation uncertainty

In the application of the Company''s accounting policies, which are described in note 3, the management of the Company are required to make judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

The following are the areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgements that the management has made in the process of applying the Company''s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements:

Provision and contingent liability

On an ongoing basis, Company reviews pending cases, claims by third parties and other contingencies. For contingent losses that are considered probable, an estimated loss is recorded as an accrual in financial statements. Loss Contingencies that are considered possible are not provided for but disclosed as Contingent liabilities in the financial statements. Contingencies the likelihood of which is remote are not disclosed in the financial statements. Gain contingencies are not recognized until the contingency has been resolved and amounts are received or receivable.

Useful lives of depreciable assets

Management reviews the useful lives of depreciable assets at each reporting. As at March 31, 2018 management assessed that the useful lives represent the expected utility of the assets to the Company. Further, there is no significant change in the useful lives as compared to previous year.

2.6 Measurement of fair values

A number of the Company''s accounting policies and disclosures require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities.

Fair values are categorised into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:

• Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

• Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either

directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).

• Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company uses observable market data as far as possible. If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorised in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement.

The Company recognises transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred.

Current - non-current classification

All assets and liabilities are classified into current and non-current.

Assets - An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

• it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company''s normal operating cycle;

• it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

• it is expected to be realised within 12 months after the reporting period; or

• it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period.

Current assets include the current portion of non-current financial assets. All other assets are classified as non-current. Liabilities - A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

• it is expected to be settled in the Company''s normal operating cycle;

• it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

• it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting period; or

• the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period.

Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current liabilities include the current portion of non-current financial liabilities. All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

3 Significant accounting policies

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements and in preparing the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet as at 1 April 2016 for the purposes of the transition to Ind AS.

3.1 Revenue recognition

Revenue from operations

Revenue from Software Development on fixed-price, fixed time frame contracts, where there is no uncertainty as to the measurement or collectability of consideration is recognized as per the percentage of completion method. On time and material contracts, revenue is recognized as the related services are rendered. Provision for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current estimates. Annual technical services revenue and revenue from fixed price maintenance contracts are recognized proportionately over the period in which services are rendered. Revenue from the sale of user licenses for software applications is recognized on transfer of the title in the user license, except multiple element contracts, where revenue is recognized as per the percentage of completion method.

Profit on sale of investments is recorded on transfer of title from the company and is determined as the difference between the sales price and the then carrying value of the investment. Dividend income is recognised where the company''s right to receive dividend is established. Interest and Other Income is recognised on accrual basis.

Interest income

Interest income from a financial asset is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset''s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

3.2 Leases

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

Leases under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets are capitalized at fair value of the asset or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. Assets held under leases that do not transfer substantially all the risks and reward of ownership are not recognized in the balance sheet.

Lease payments under operating lease are generally recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the term of lease unless such payments are structured to increase inline with the expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor''s expected inflationary cost increases.

Further, at the inception of above arrangement, the Company determines whether the above arrangement is or contains a lease. At inception or on reassessment of an arrangement that contains a lease, the Company separates a payments and other consideration required by the arrangement into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values.

If the Company concludes for a finance lease that it is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then an asset and a liability are recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset; subsequently, the liability is reduced as payments are made and an imputed finance cost on the liability is recognised using the Company''s incremental borrowing rate.

Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance charge is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

3.3 Foreign currencies

In preparing the financial statements of the Company, transactions in currencies other than the company''s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated. Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise.

3.4 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

3.5 Taxation

Income tax expense consists of current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognized in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in equity. Current tax

Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognized using the balance sheet method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognized for the following temporary differences: the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit; differences relating to investments in subsidiaries and jointly controlled entities to the extent that it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and taxable temporary differences arising upon the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to the temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.

A deferred tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.

3.6 Earnings per share

The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) data for its ordinary shares. The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to equity shareholders for the year relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share.

3.7 Property, plant and equipment

The initial cost of PPE comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, and any directly attributable costs of bringing an asset to working condition and location for its intended use, including relevant borrowing costs and any expected costs of decommissioning, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Expenditure incurred after the PPE have been put into operation, such as repairs and maintenance, are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the costs are incurred.

If significant parts of an item of PPE have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of PPE.

Material items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and service equipment are classified as PPE when they meet the definition of PPE as specified in Ind AS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment.

Subsequent costs

Subsequent costs are included in the asset''s carrying amount or recognised as separate assets, as appropriate, only when it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with expenditure will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss at the time of incurrence.

Transition to Ind AS

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at 1 April 2016 measured as per the Previous Indian GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment. Refer to Note 39.

3.8 Depreciation

Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of PPE over its useful life and is provided on a Written Down Value (WDV) basis over the useful lives as prescribed in Schedule II to the Act or as per technical assessment.

Depreciable amount for PPE is the cost of PPE less its estimated residual value. The useful life of PPE is the period over which PPE is expected to be available for use by the Company, or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by the Company.

Depreciation on additions is provided on a pro-rata basis from the month of installation or acquisition and in case of Projects from the date of commencement of commercial production. Depreciation on deductions/disposals is provided on a pro-rata basis up to the date of deduction/disposal.

3.9 Goodwill and other intangible assets

Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment. Intangible assets are amortized over their respective estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, from the date that they are available for use.

Amortisation

The estimated useful life of an identifiable intangible asset is based on a number of factors including the effects of obsolescence, demand, competition and other economic factors (such as the stability of the industry and known technological advances) and the level of maintenance expenditures required to obtain the expected future cash flows from the asset.

Computer software is amortised on straight line basis over a period of three years. Transition to Ind AS

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at 1 April 2016 measured as per the Previous Indian GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment. Refer to Note 39.

3.10 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the Balance Sheet comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term deposits with banks that are readily convertible into cash which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value and are held for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments.

3.11 Statement of Cash flows

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby net profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated. Bank overdrafts are classified as part of cash and cash equivalent, as they form an integral part of an entity''s cash management.

3.12 Impairment of non financial assets

The carrying amounts of the Company''s non-financial assets and deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated.

The recoverable amount of an asset or cash-generating unit (as defined below) is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or the cash-generating unit. For the purpose of impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups of assets (the cash-generating unit).

An impairment loss is recognized in the income statement if the estimated recoverable amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit is lower than its carrying amount. Impairment losses recognized in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset''s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized. Goodwill that forms part of the carrying amount of an investment in an associate is not recognized separately, and therefore is not tested for impairment separately. Instead, the entire amount of the investment in an associate is tested for impairment as a single asset when there is objective evidence that the investment in an associate may be impaired.

An impairment loss in respect of equity accounted investee is measured by comparing the recoverable amount of investment with its carrying amount. An impairment loss is recognized in the income statement, and reversed if there has been a favorable change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.

3.13 Employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to the income statement as and when the services are received from the employees.

Defined benefit plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the projected unit credit method consistent with the advice of qualified actuaries. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related defined benefit obligation. In countries where there is no deep market in such bonds, the market rates on government bonds are used. The current service cost of the defined benefit plan, recognized in the income statement in employee benefit expense, reflects the increase in the defined benefit obligation resulting from employee service in the current year, benefit changes, curtailments and settlements. Past service costs are recognized immediately in income. The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the income statement. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to equity in other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise.

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are recognized as an expense when the Company is demonstrably committed, without realistic possibility of withdrawal, to a formal detailed plan to either terminate employment before the normal retirement date, or to provide termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. Termination benefits for voluntary redundancies are recognized as an expense if the Company has made an offer encouraging voluntary redundancy, it is probable that the offer will be accepted, and the number of acceptances can be estimated reliably.

Other long-term employee benefits

The Company''s net obligation in respect of other long term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and previous periods. That benefit is discounted to determine its present value. Re-measurements are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.

3.14 Provisions

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.

3.15 Contingent Liabilities & Contingent Assets

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

3.16 Financial instruments

a. Recognition and Initial recognition

The Company recognizes financial assets and financial liabilities when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets and liabilities are recognized at fair value on initial recognition, except for trade receivables which are initially measured at transaction price. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issues of financial assets and financial liabilities that are not at fair value through profit or loss, are added to the fair value on initial recognition.

A financial asset or financial liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.

b. Classification and Subsequent measurement

Financial assets

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at

-amortised cost;

-FVTPL

Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.

A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

All financial assets not classified as measured at amortised cost as described above are measured at FVTPL. On initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

Financial assets: Business model assessment

The Company makes an assessment of the objective of the business model in which a financial asset is held at a portfolio level because this best reflects the way the business is managed and information is provided to management. The information considered includes:

- the stated policies and objectives for the portfolio and the operation of those policies in practice. These include whether management''s strategy focuses on earning contractual interest income, maintaining a particular interest rate profile, matching the duration of the financial assets to the duration of any related liabilities or expected cash outflows or realising cash flows through the sale of the assets;

- how the performance of the portfolio is evaluated and reported to the Company''s management;

- the risks that affect the performance of the business model (and the financial assets held within that business model) and how those risks are managed;

- how managers of the business are compensated -e.g. whether compensation is based on the fair value of the assets managed or the contractual cash flows collected; and

- the frequency, volume and timing of sales of financial assets in prior periods, the reasons for such sales and expectations about future sales activity.

Transfers of financial assets to third parties in transactions that do not qualify for derecognition are not considered sales for this purpose, consistent with the Company''s continuing recognition of the assets.

Financial assets that are held for trading or are managed and whose performance is evaluated on a fair value basis are measured at FVTPL

Financial assets: Assessment whether contractual cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest

For the purposes of this assessment, ''principal'' is defined as the fair value of the financial asset on initial recognition. ''Interest'' is defined as consideration for the time value of money and for the credit risk associated with the principal amount outstanding during a particular period of time and for other basic lending risks and costs (e.g. liquidity risk and administrative costs), as well as a profit margin.

In assessing whether the contractual cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest, the Company considers the contractual terms of the instrument. This includes assessing whether the financial asset contains a contractual term that could change the timing or amount of contractual cash flows such that it would not meet this condition. In making this assessment, the Company considers:

- contingent events that would change the amount or timing of cash flows;

-terms that may adjust the contractual coupon rate, including variable interest rate features;

- prepayment and extension features; and

-terms that limit the Company''s claim to cash flows from specified assets (e.g. non recourse features).

A prepayment feature is consistent with the solely payments of principal and interest criterion if the prepayment amount substantially represents unpaid amounts of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding, which may include reasonable additional compensation for early termination of the contract. Additionally, for a financial asset acquired at a significant discount or premium to its contractual par amount, a feature that permits or requires prepayment at an amount that substantially represents the contractual par amount plus accrued (but unpaid) contractual interest (which may also include reasonable additional compensation for early termination) is treated as consistent with this criterion if the fair value of the prepayment feature is insignificant at initial recognition.

Financial assets: Subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial assets at FVTPL: These assets are subsequently measured at fair value. Net gains and losses, including any interest or dividend income, are recognised in profit or loss.

a) Financial assets at amortised cost: These assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The amortised cost is reduced by impairment losses. Interest income, foreign exchange gains and losses and impairment are recognised in profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is recognised in profit or loss.

b) Financial liabilities: Classification, Subsequent measurement and gains and losses Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held for trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognised in profit or loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is also recognised in profit or loss.

c) Derecognition Financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.

If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised.

Financial liabilities

The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in profit

d) Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

e) Impairment

The Company recognises loss allowances for expected credit losses on financial assets measured at amortised cost;

At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether financial assets carried at amortised cost and debt securities at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI) are credit impaired. A financial asset is ''credit impaired'' when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset have occurred.

Evidence that a financial asset is credit impaired includes the following observable data:

- significant financial difficulty of the borrower or issuer;

- the restructuring of a loan or advance by the Company on terms that the Company would not consider otherwise;

- it is probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation; or

- the disappearance of an active market for a security because of financial difficulties.

The Company measures loss allowances at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses, except for the following, which are measured as 12 month expected credit losses:

- debt securities that are determined to have low credit risk at the reporting date; and

- other debt securities and bank balances for which credit risk (i.e. the risk of default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument) has not increased significantly since initial recognition.

Loss allowances for trade receivables are always measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument.

12-month expected credit losses are the portion of expected credit losses that result from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date (or a shorter period if the expected life of the instrument is less than 12 months).

In all cases, the maximum period considered when estimating expected credit losses is the maximum contractual period over which the Company is exposed to credit risk.

When determining whether the credit risk of a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition and when estimating expected credit losses, the Company considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Company''s historical experience and informed credit assessment and including forward looking information.

Measurement of expected credit losses

Expected credit losses are a probabilityweighted estimate of credit losses. Credit losses are measured as the present value of all cash shortfalls (i.e. the difference between the cash flows due to the Company in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive).

Presentation of allowance for expected credit losses in the balance sheet

Loss allowances for financial assets measured at amortised cost are deducted from the gross carrying amount of the assets.

Write-off

The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) to the extent that there is no realistic prospect of recovery. This is generally the case when the Company determines that the trade receivable does not have assets or sources of income that could generate sufficient cash flows to repay the amounts subject to the write off. However, financial assets that are written off could still be subject to enforcement activities in order to comply with the Company''s procedures for recovery of amounts due.

Investment in subsidiaries

Investment in subsidiaries is carried at cost, less any impairment in the value of investment, in these separate financial statements.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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