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Divis Laboratories

BSE: 532488|NSE: DIVISLAB|ISIN: INE361B01024|SECTOR: Pharmaceuticals
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '19

1. Significant Accounting Policies

This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

1.1 Basis of Preparation:

(i) Compliance with Ind AS

The financial statements comply in all material aspects with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015] and other relevant provisions of the Act and guidelines issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

(ii) Historical cost convention

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following:

- Certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value; (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments)

- Defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value

(iii) Amended standard adopted by the Company

The company has applied the following standards and amendments for the first time for their annual reporting period commencing 1 April 2018

- Ind AS 115, Revenue from contracts with customers

- Appendix B, Foreign currency Transactions and Advance consideration to Ind AS 21. The effects of changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

The amendments listed above did not have any significant impact on the amounts recognised in prior periods and are not expected to significantly affect the current or future periods.

(iv) Current and non-current classification

An asset / liability is classified as current if:

(a) The amount is expected to be realized or sold or consumed in the Company’s normal operating cycle; the liability is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle;

(b) Asset / liability is held primarily for the purpose of trading;

(c) Asset / liability is expected to be realized/settled within twelve months after the reporting period; or

(d) The asset is cash or a cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period. The liability has no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets / liabilities are classified as noncurrent.

The operating cycle is the time between acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. Based on the nature of products and time between acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current/non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

(v) Recent Accounting Pronouncements:

Appendix C, Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments, to Ind AS 12, ‘Income Taxes’

The appendix explains how to recognise and measure deferred and current income tax assets and liabilities where there is uncertainty over a tax treatment. In particular, it discusses:

- how to determine the appropriate unit of account, and that each uncertain tax treatment should be considered separately or together as a group, depending on which approach better predicts the resolution of the uncertainty;

- that the entity should assume a tax authority will examine the uncertain tax treatments and have full knowledge of all related information, i.e. the detection risk should be ignored;

- that the entity should reflect the effect of the uncertainty in its income tax accounting when it is not probable that the tax authorities will accept the treatment;

- that the impact of the uncertainty should be measured using either the most likely amount or the expected value method, depending on which method better predicts the resolution of the uncertainty; and

- that the judgements and estimates made must be reassessed whenever circumstances have changed or there is new information that affects the judgements.

The Company operates in limited countries and tax jurisdictions and has substantially completed assessing its existing models and processes which it has developed to account for tax uncertainties against the specific guidance in the Appendix C to Ind AS 12 to consider the impact on income tax accounting in respect of its material tax jurisdictions. Basis such assessment, the application of this guidance is not expected to have material impact on its financial statements.

Long-term Interests in Associates and Joint Ventures - Amendments to Ind AS 28, ‘Investment in Associates and Joint Ventures’

The amendments clarify the accounting for longterm interests in an associate or joint venture, which in substance form part of the net investment in the associate or joint venture, but to which equity accounting is not applied. Entities must account for such interests under Ind AS 109 ‘Financial Instruments’ before applying the loss allocation and impairment requirements in Ind AS 28.

Since the Company does not have associates or joint ventures, the amendments will not have any impact on its financial statements.

Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation

- Amendments to Ind AS 109, ‘Financial Instruments’

The narrow-scope amendments made to Ind AS 109 enable entities to measure certain prepayable financial assets with negative compensation at amortised cost. These assets, which include some loan and debt securities, would otherwise have to be measured at fair value through profit or loss. To qualify for amortised cost measurement, the negative compensation must be ‘reasonable compensation for early termination of the contract’ and the asset must be held within a ‘held to collect’ business model.

These amendments are not expected to have any impact on the financial statements of the Company.

Plan Amendment, Curtailment or Settlement -Amendments to Ind AS 19, ‘Employee Benefits’

The amendments to Ind AS 19 clarify the accounting for defined benefit plan amendments, curtailments and settlements. They confirm that entities must:

- calculate the current service cost and net interest for the remainder of the reporting period after a plan amendment, curtailment or settlement by using the updated assumptions from the date of the change;

- any reduction in a surplus should be recognised immediately in profit or loss either as part of past service cost, or as a gain or loss on settlement. In other words, a reduction in a surplus must be recognised in profit or loss even if that surplus was not previously recognised because of the impact of the asset ceiling; and

- separately recognise any changes in the asset ceiling through other comprehensive income.

These amendments will apply to any future plan amendments, curtailments, or settlements of the Company on or after 1 April 2019. The Company does not have any impact on account of this amendment.

Ind AS 103, ‘Business Combinations’

The amendments clarify that obtaining control of a business that is a joint operation, is a business combination achieved in stages. The acquirer should remeasure its previously held interest in the joint operation at fair value at the acquisition date.

These amendments will apply to future business combinations of the Company for which acquisition date is on or after 1 April 2019. These amendments do not have any impact on the financial statements of the Company.

Ind AS 111, ‘Joint Arrangements’

The amendments clarify that the party obtaining joint control of a business that is a joint operation should not re-measure its previously held interest in the joint operation.

These amendments will apply to future transactions of the Company in which it obtains joint control of a business on or after 1 April 2019. These amendments do not have any impact on the financial statements of the Company.

Amendment to Ind AS 12, Income Taxes

The amendments clarify that the income tax consequences of dividends on financial instruments classified as equity should be recognised according to where the past transactions or events that generated distributable profits were recognised. These requirements apply to all income tax consequences of dividends. Previously, it was unclear whether the income tax consequences of dividends should be recognised in profit or loss, or in equity, and the scope of the existing guidance was ambiguous.

The amendments are effective on or after 1 April 2019 and the Company will apply the amendments for the financial statements prepared on or after 1 April 2019.

Ind AS 23, ‘Borrowing Costs’

The amendments clarify that if a specific borrowing remains outstanding after the related qualifying asset is ready for its intended use or sale, it becomes part of general borrowings.

Since the Company does not have qualifying assets, these amendments do not have any impact on the financial statements of the Company.

Ind AS 116, ‘Leases’

Ind AS 116 was notified by Ministry of Corporate Affairs on 30 March 2019 and it is applicable for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2019.

Ind AS 116 will affect primarily the accounting by lessees and will result in the recognition of almost all leases on balance sheet. The standard removes the current distinction between operating and finance leases and requires recognition of an asset (the right-of-use of the leased item) and a financial liability to pay rentals for virtually all lease contracts. An optional exemption exists for short-term and low-value leases.

The statement of profit and loss will also be affected because the total expense is typically higher in the earlier years of a lease and lower in later years. Additionally, operating expense will be replaced with interest and depreciation, so key metrics like EBITDA will change.

Operating cash flows will be higher as repayments of the lease liability and related interest are classified within financing activities.

The accounting by lessors will not significantly change. Some differences may arise as a result of the new guidance on the definition of a lease. Under Ind AS 116, a contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

The Company is in the process of reviewing all of its leasing arrangements in light of the new lease accounting rules in Ind AS 116. The standard will affect primarily the accounting for the Company’s operating leases. The Company intends to apply simplified transition approach and will not restate comparative information in the financial statements for the year ending 31 March 2020 to show the impact of adopting Ind AS 116.

1.2 Segment Reporting:

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Chief Operating Decision Maker. The Chairman and Managing Director has been identified as being the Chief Operating Decision Maker. Refer note 37 for the segment information presented.

1.3 Foreign currency translation:

(i) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of the Company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The financial statements are presented in Indian rupee (INR), which is Divi’s (the Company’s) functional and presentation currency.

(ii) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates are generally recognised in statement of profit and loss.

Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined. Translation differences on assets and liabilities carried at fair value are reported as part of the fair value gain or loss. For example, translation differences on nonmonetary assets and liabilities such as equity instruments held at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in statement of profit and loss as part of the fair value gain or loss and translation differences on non-monetary assets such as equity investments classified as FVOCI are recognised in other comprehensive income.

1.4 Revenue recognition:

Revenue is measured at fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Amounts disclosed as revenue are inclusive of excise duty and net of returns, trade allowances, rebates, sales tax, value added taxes, Goods & Service Tax (GST) and amounts collected on behalf of third parties.

(i) Revenue from Sale of Goods:

Effective April 1, 2018, the Company adopted Ind AS 115 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” using the modified retrospective method. Also, refer note 44. The following is a summary of new and/or revised significant accounting policies related to revenue recognition. Refer Note 2 “Significant Accounting Policies,” in the Company’s 2018 Annual Report for the policies in effect for revenue prior to April 1, 2018.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when the customer obtains control of the Company’s product, which occurs at a point in time, usually upon shipment, with payment terms typically in the range of 60 to 180 days after invoicing depending on product and geographic region. The Company elected the practical expedient approach not to adjust the amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component for all instances in which the period between payment and transfer of the goods will be one year or less. Taxes collected from customers relating to product sales and remitted to government authorities are excluded from revenues.

For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price. The Standalone selling price of each performance obligation is estimated using expected costs of satisfying such performance obligation and then an appropriate margin is added for such goods or services.

(ii) Revenue from Sale of Services:

Revenue from Sale of services is recognised as per the terms of the contracts with customers when the related services are performed or the agreed milestones are achieved.

(iii) Export incentives:

Export incentives comprise of Duty draw back and MEIS (Merchandise Exports Incentive scheme) scrips.

Duty drawback is recognised as income when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

MEIS scrips are freely transferable and can be utilised for the payment of customs duty, MEIS scrips are recognised either on transfer/sale of such scrips or when it is reasonably certain that such scrips can be utilised against customs duty on imports.

(iv) Dividend Income:

Dividends are received from financial assets at fair value through profit or loss and at FVOCI. Dividends are recognised as other income in profit or loss when the right to receive payment is established. This applies even if they are paid out of pre-acquisition profits, unless the dividend clearly represents a recovery of part of the cost of the investment.

(v) Interest Income:

Interest income from financial assets at fair value through profit or loss is disclosed as interest income within other income. Interest income, on financial assets at amortised cost and financial assets at FVOCI, is calculated using the effective interest method and the same is recognised in the statement of profit and loss as part of other income. Interest income is calculated by applying the effective interest rate to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset except for financial assets that subsequently become credit-impaired. For credit-impaired financial assets, the effective interest rate is applied to the net carrying amount of the financial asset (after deduction of the loss allowance).

1.5 Income Taxes:

The income tax expense or credit for the period is the tax payable on the current period’s taxable income based on the applicable income tax rate for each jurisdiction adjusted by changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities attributable to temporary differences and to unused tax losses.

The current income tax charge is calculated on the basis of the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the end of the reporting period. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation. It establishes provisions, where appropriate, on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.

Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realized or the deferred income tax liability is settled.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences and unused tax losses only if it is probable that future taxable amounts will be available to utilize those temporary differences and losses.

Deferred tax liabilities are not recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amount and tax bases of investments in subsidiaries where the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax assets are not recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amount and tax bases of investments in subsidiaries where it is not probable that the differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will not be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and when the deferred tax balances relate to the same taxation authority. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Current and deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case, the tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.

For operations carried out in Special Economic Zones which are entitled to tax holiday under the Income tax Act, 1961 no deferred tax is recognised in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent company’s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognised in the year in which timing difference originate.

Deferred Tax Assets include Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, which is likely to give future economic benefits in the form of availability of set off against future income tax liability. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as deferred tax asset in the Balance sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realized.

1.6 Impairment of assets:

Assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows which are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets (cash-generating units). Non-financial assets that suffered an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period.

1.7 Cash and cash equivalents:

For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, deposits held at call with financial institutions, other short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet.

1.8 Trade receivables:

Trade receivables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment, since the company holds trade receivables with an objective to collect contractual cash flows.

1.9 Inventories:

Raw materials and stores, work-in-progress, traded and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost, calculated on weighted average basis, and net realizable value. Cost of raw materials and stores comprise of costs of purchases. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity. Cost of inventories also include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of purchased inventory are determined after deducting rebates and discounts. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Items held for use in the production of inventory are not written below cost if the finished product in which these will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

1.10 Investments and other financial assets:

(i) Classification:

The Company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

- those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income, or through profit or loss), and

- those measured at amortised cost.

The classification depends on the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.

For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or other comprehensive income. For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which the investment is held. For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the Company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through other comprehensive income. The Company reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes.

(ii) Recognition

Purchases and sale of financial assets are recognised on trade date, the date on which company commits to purchase or sale the financial assets.

(iii) Measurement

At initial recognition, the Company measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in profit or loss.

Debt instruments

Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the Company’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the Company classifies its debt instruments:

Amortised cost: Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortised cost. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition is recognised directly in profit or loss and presented in other gains/(losses). Impairment losses are presented as separate line item in the statement of profit and loss

Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI): Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI). Movements in the carrying amount are taken through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest revenue and foreign exchange gains and losses, which are recognised in profit and loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to profit or loss and recognised in other gains/(losses). Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.

Fair value through profit or loss: Assets that do not meet the criteria for amortised cost or FVOCI are measured at fair value through profit or loss. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognised in profit or loss and presented net in the statement of profit and loss within other gains/ (losses) in the period in which it arises. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income.

Equity instruments

Subsequent measurements of all equity investments are done at fair value. Where the Company’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in other comprehensive income, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss. Dividends from such investments are recognised in profit or loss as other income when the Company’s right to receive payments is established. Changes in the fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in other income in the statement of profit and loss. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at fair value are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.

(iv) Impairment of financial assets

The Company assesses on a forward looking basis, the expected credit losses associated with its assets carried at amortised cost and FVOCI debt instruments. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. Note 35 details how the Company determines whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk.

For trade receivables only, the Company applies the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables.

(v) Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is derecognized only when

- the Company has transferred the rights to receive cash flow from the financial asset or

- retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial assets, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay cash flows to one or more recipients.

Where the entity has transferred an asset, the Company evaluates whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. In such cases, the financial asset is derecognized. Where the entity has not transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership, the financial asset is not derecognized.

Where the entity has neither transferred a financial asset nor retains substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is derecognised if the Company has not retained control of the financial asset. Where the Company retains control of the financial asset, the asset is continued to be recognised to the extent of continuing involvement in the financial asset.

1.11 Offsetting financial instruments:

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or the counterparty,

1.12 Property, Plant & Equipment:

Freehold land is carried at historical cost. All other items of property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items. On transition to Ind AS, the Company had elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment recognized as at 1st April 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as separate asset is derecognized when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to profit or loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.

Capital work-in-progress includes cost of property, plant and equipment under installation/development as at the balance sheet date.

(i) Depreciation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value

Depreciation on Property, Plant & Equipment is provided on straight-line basis to allocate their cost, net of residual value over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The useful lives have been determined in order to reflect the actual usage of the assets.

Following are the estimated useful lives:

Plant & Machinery 7.5-25 years

Roads and Buildings 30 & 60 years

Furniture and Fixtures 10 years

Vehicles 8 & 10 years

Office Equipments 5 years

Laboratory Equipments 10 years Computer and data processing units 3-6 years

The residual values are not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset. The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period. An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount.

Gains and losses on disposal are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in profit or loss within other income/other expenses.

1.13 Intangible Assets:

(i) Computer software

Costs associated with maintaining software are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs that are directly attributable to the design and testing of identifiable and unique software products controlled by the Company are recognised as intangible assets when the following criteria are met:

- it is technically feasible to complete the software so that it will be available for use

- management intends to complete the software and use or sell it

- there is an ability to use or sell the software

- it can be demonstrated how the software will generate probable future economic benefits

- adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the software are available and;

- the expenditure attributable to the software during its development can be reliably measured.

On transition to Ind AS, the Company had elected to continue with the carrying value of all of intangible assets recognized as at 1st April 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of intangible assets.

Capitalised development costs are recorded as intangible assets and amortised from the point at which the asset is available for use.

(ii) Research and development

Research and Development expenditure that do not meet the criteria in (i) above are recognized as an expense as incurred. Development costs previously recognized as an expense are not recognized as an asset in a subsequent period.

(iii) Amortization methods and periods

The Company amortizes intangible assets over a period of 3 years based on their estimated useful lives.

1.14 Trade and Other Payables:

These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognized initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

1.15 Borrowings:

Borrowings are initially recognized at fair value, net of transaction cost incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption amount is recognized in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognized as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down. In this case, the fee is deferred until the draw down occurs. To the extent there is no evidence that it is probable that some or all the facility will be drawn down, the fee is capitalized as a prepayment for liquidity services and amortized over the period of the facility to which it relates.

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any noncash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in profit or loss as other gains/(losses).

Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period. Where there is a breach of a material provision of a long-term loan arrangement on or before the end of the reporting period with the effect that the liability becomes payable on demand on the reporting date, the entity does not classify the liability as current, if the lender agreed, after the reporting period and before the approval of financial statements for issue, not to demand payment as consequence of the breach.

1.16 Borrowing Cost:

General and specific borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale.

Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing cost eligible for capitalization. Other borrowings costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

1.17 Provisions:

Provision for legal claims and volume discounts are recognized when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognized for future operating losses.

Provisions are measured at the present value of management’s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provisions due to the passage of time is recognized as interest expense. Provision for litigation related obligation represents liabilities that are expected to materialize in respect of matters in appeal.

1.18 Employee benefits:

(i) Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, bonus, ex-gratia etc. that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognized in respect of employees’ services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

(ii) Other long-term employee benefit obligations

The liabilities for earned leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligations. Remeasurements as a result of the experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in profit or loss.

The obligations are presented as current liabilities in the balance sheet if the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.

(iii) Post-employment obligations

The Company operates the following post-employment schemes:

(a) Defined benefit plans-Gratuity obligations

The liability or assets recognized in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligations at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation denominated in INR is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. The benefits which are denominated in currency other than INR, the cash flows are discounted using market yields determined by reference to high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and change in actuarial assumptions are recognized in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognized immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.

In respect of funded post-employment defined benefit plans, amounts due for payment within 12 months to the fund may be treated as ‘current’. Regarding unfunded post-employment benefit plans, settlement obligations which are due within 12 months in respect of employees who have resigned or expected to resign or are due for retirement within the next 12 months is ‘current’. The remaining amount attributable to other employees, who are likely to continue in the services for more than a year, is classified as “non-current”.

Normally, an actuary should determine the amount of current and non-current liability for unfunded post-employment benefit obligations.

(b) Defined contribution plans

The Company pays provident fund contributions to publicly administered funds as per local regulations. The Company has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are accounted for as defined contribution plans and the contributions are recognized as employee benefit expense when they are due.

1.19 Dividends:

Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorized and no longer at the discretion of the entity, on or before the end of the reporting period but not distributed at the end of the reporting period. Proposed dividend is recognised as a liability in the period in which it is declared by the Company, usually when approved by shareholders in a general meeting, or paid.

1.20 Contributed equity:

Equity shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

1.21 Earnings per share:

(i) Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing:

- The profit attributable to owners of the Company

- By the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in equity shares issued during the year.

(ii) Diluted earnings per share

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account:

- the after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and

- the weighted average number of additional equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

2.22 Leases:

At the inception of a lease, the lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, based on the substance of the lease arrangement.

As a Lessee:

Leases of property, plant and equipment where the Company, as lessee, has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalised at the lease’s inception at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of minimum lease payments. The corresponding rental obligations, net of finance charges, are included in borrowing or other financial liabilities as appropriate. Each lease payment is allocated between the liability and finance cost. The finance cost is charged to profit or loss over the lease period so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period.

Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the Company as lessee are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from lessor) are charged to profit or loss on straight-line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.

Deposits provided to Lessor:

The Company is generally required to pay refundable security deposits in order to obtain property leases from various lessors. Such security deposits are financial assets and are recorded at fair value on initial recognition. The difference between the initial fair value and the refundable amount of deposit is recognised as lease prepayments. The initial fair value is estimated as the present value of the refundable amount of security deposit, discounted using the market interest rates for similar instruments.

Subsequent to initial recognition, the security deposit is measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method with carrying amount increased over the lease period up to the refundable amount. The amount of increase in the carrying amount of deposit is recognised as interest income. The lease repayment is amortised on straight-line basis over the lease term as lease rentals expense.

1.23 Contingent Liability & Commitments:

Contingent liability is disclosed in the case of:

- a present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation;

- a present obligation arising from past events, when no reliable estimate is possible;

- a possible obligation arising from past events, unless the probability of outflow of resources is remote.

Commitments include the amount of purchase order (net of advances) issued to parties for completion of assets.

1.24 Critical estimates and Judgements:

The preparation of financial statements requires the use of accounting estimates, which, by definition, will seldom equal the actual results. Management also needs to exercise judgement in applying the Company’s accounting policies.

This note provides an overview of the areas that involve a higher degree of judgement or complexity, and of items, which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be different than those originally assessed. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in relevant notes together with information about the basis of calculation for each affected line item in the financial statements.

The areas involving critical estimates or judgements are:

(i) Estimation of current tax expense and payable - refer note : 32(b)

(ii) Estimation of defined benefit obligations- refer note: 18

(iii) Allowance for uncollected accounts receivable and advances. Trade receivables do not carry any interest and are stated at their nominal value as reduced by appropriate allowances for estimated irrevocable amounts. Individual trade receivables are written off when management deems them not to be collectible. Impairment is made on the expected credit losses, which are the present value of the cash shortfall over the expected life of the financial assets.

Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated. They are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that may have a financial impact on the company and that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

1.25 Government grant:

Grants from the government are recognised at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the group will comply with all attached conditions.

Government grants relating to income are deferred and recognised in the profit or loss over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate and presented within other income.

Government grants relating to the purchase of property, plant and equipment are included in non-current liabilities as deferred income and are credited to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the expected lives of the related assets and presented within other income.

Export entitlements from government authorities are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as a reduction from “Cost of materials consumed” when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made by the Company, and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate realisation of the entitlement.

1.26 Rounding of Amounts:

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded off to the nearest lakhs as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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