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Castrol India

BSE: 500870|NSE: CASTROLIND|ISIN: INE172A01027|SECTOR: Lubricants
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Accounting Policy Year : Dec '18

1.1 Summary of significant accounting policies

a. Current versus non-current classification

An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

b. Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is recognised when it is earned and no significant uncertainty exists as to its realisation or collection.

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when ownership in the goods is transferred to the buyer for a price, when significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer and no effective control, to a degree usually associated with ownership, is retained by the Company. Sale of goods are stated net of trade discounts and volume rebates, and include excise duty.

Income from services

Income from service rendered is recognised based on the terms of the agreements as and when services are rendered and are net of applicable taxes.

Interest income

Interest income is recorded using the Effective Interest Rate (EIR) for debt instruments carried at amortised cost. EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset.

c. Foreign currencies Functional currency

The functional currency of the Company is the Indian rupee. These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees (rounded off to crore).

Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the functional currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction. All foreign currency monetary assets and monetary liabilities as at the Balance Sheet date are translated into the functional currency at the applicable exchange rates prevailing on that date. All exchange differences arising on translation, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of the transaction.

Gain or losses upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period in which the transaction is settled.

d. Retirement and other employee benefits Gratuity

The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan (‘the Gratuity Plan’) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on respective employee’s salary and tenure of employment with the Company.

Liabilities with regard to Gratuity Plan are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an independent actuary, at each Balance Sheet date using projected unit credit method. The Company fully contributes all ascertained liabilities to the Castrol India Limited Employees’ Gratuity Fund Trust (‘the Trust’). Trustees administer contributions made to the Trusts and contributions are invested in insurance and deposit schemes.

The Company recognises the net obligation of a defined benefit plan in its Balance Sheet as an asset or liability.

Gains and losses through remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability/(asset) are recognised in other comprehensive income. The actual return of the portfolio of plan assets, in excess of the yields computed by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation is recognised in other comprehensive income. The effect of any plan amendments are recognised in net profit in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Superannuation

Certain employees of the Company are participants in a defined contribution plan. The Company has no further obligations to the plan beyond its monthly contributions which are periodically contributed to the Castrol India Limited Staff Pension Fund, the corpus of which is invested with the Life Insurance Corporation of India and Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Co. Ltd.

Provident fund

Eligible employees of the Company receive benefits from a Provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. Both the eligible employees and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee’s salary. The Company contributes a portion to the Castrol India Limited Employees’ Provident Fund Trust (‘The PF trust’). The PF trust invests in specific designated instruments as permitted by Indian Law. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the PF trust is being administrated by the Government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the PF trust and the notified interest rate.

Compensated absences

The Company has a policy on compensated absences which is applicable to its executives joined upto a specified period and all workers. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary at each Balance Sheet date using projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid/availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date.

Share-based compensation

Share value plan

BP PLC (“Ultimate Holding Company”) has a “Share Value Plan” whereby the specified employees of its subsidiaries are granted restricted share units of Ultimate Holding Company. Each restricted share unit represents a conditional entitlement to receive one share of Ultimate Holding Company in future, provided that certain terms and conditions are met. The main terms and conditions are a) continuous employment with the BP group until the end of restricted period and b) achievement of certain performance targets by the employee and/or BP Group. The cost of equity-settled transactions with employees is measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments on the date on which they are granted and is recognised as an expense over the restricted period. A corresponding credit is recognised within equity since the cost of such share value plan is borne by the Ultimate Holding Company.

Share match plan

The Ultimate Holding Company has a “Share Match Plan” whereby all executive employees of its subsidiaries have been given a right to purchase the shares of Ultimate Holding Company upto a specified amount. Every employee who opts for the scheme contributes by way of payroll deduction a specified amount towards purchase of share. The Company contributes equal amount and charges it to employee benefits expense.

Other employee benefits

Short term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the related service is rendered.

Redundancy Expenses are fully charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they accrue.

e. Taxes

Income tax expense comprises current income tax and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent it relates to items recognised directly in equity, in which case it is recognised in other comprehensive income or other equity as the case may be.

Current income tax

Current tax is the amount of tax payable based on the taxable profit for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

The current tax year for the Company being the year ending March 31, the provision for taxation for the year is aggregate of the provision made for the three months ended on March 31, 2018 and the provision for the remaining period of nine months ending on December 31, 2018. The provision for the remaining period of nine months has been arrived at by applying the effective tax rate of the financial year 2018-19 to Profit Before Tax of the said period.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the Financial Statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profits.

Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised.

Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off tax assets against tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority

f. Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price (Net of Cenvat and VAT credit/GST input credit wherever applicable) and any attributable cost of bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use. Such cost also includes the cost of replacing part of the Property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of Property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the Property, plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in statement of profit and loss as incurred.

Depreciation on Property, plant and equipment is calculated on a straight-line basis, from the month of addition, using the estimated useful lives, as specified in schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, except in respect of the following assets:

Leasehold land is being amortised on a straight-line basis over the the lease term.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of Property, plant and equipment are reviewed at the end of each reporting period and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

g. Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles are not capitalised and the related expenditure is reflected in statement of profit and loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.

Intangible assets are amortised over the useful economic life i.e. 4 years based on management assessment and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

h. Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease. Leases not classified as finance lease are classified as operating lease.

Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalised.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

i. Inventories

Inventories consist of raw and packing materials, stock-in-trade and finished goods. Inventories are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories is determined on weighted average basis. Cost of manufactured finished goods and work-in-progress includes material cost determined on weighted average basis and also includes an appropriate portion of allocable overheads. Cost of traded goods includes cost of purchase and other cost incurred in bringing the inventories to the present location and condition. Due allowances are made in respect of slow moving, non-moving and obsolete inventories based on estimate made by management.

j. Impairment of non-financial assets

The carrying amount of assets are reviewed for impairment at the end of each reporting date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factor. An impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset’s or cash generating unit’s fair value less cost of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value, recent market transactions are taken into account.

The business plans which are approved on an annual basis by senior management are the primary source of information for the determination of value in use. As an initial step in the preparation of these plans, various assumptions regarding market conditions, and cost inflation rates are set by senior management. These assumptions take account of existing prices and other macro economic factors and historical trends and variability

Impairment losses including impairment on inventories are recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except for previously revalued tangible assets, where the revaluation was taken to revaluation reserve. In this case, the impairment is also recognised in the revaluation reserve up to the amount of any previous revaluation.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life. A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment. Such reversal is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

k. Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss.

l. Financial instruments

(a) Non-derivative financial instruments:

Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets and liabilities are initially recognised at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and liabilities, which are not at fair value through profit or loss, are adjusted to the fair value on initial recognition. Purchase and sale of financial assets are recognised using trade date accounting.

Subsequent measurement

Financial assets carried at amortised cost

A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)

A financial asset is measured at FVOCI if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are measured at FVTPL.

Financial liabilities

All financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method or at FVTPL.

(b) Derivative financial instruments

The Company enters into foreign exchange forward contracts to manage its foreign exchange rate risks. Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in statement of profit and loss immediately

Derecognition of financial instruments

Financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognised in statement of profit and loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in statement of profit and loss on disposal of that financial asset.

Financial liabilities

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in profit or loss.

Impairment of financial assets

The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognising impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost, debt instruments at FVOCI, lease receivables, trade receivables, other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial asset not designated as at FVTPL.

Expected credit losses are the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate. The Company estimates cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument through the expected life of that financial instrument.

The Company measures the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12 months expected credit losses. 12 months expected credit losses are portion of the lifetime expected credit losses and represent the lifetime cash shortfalls that will result if default occurs within the 12 months after the reporting date and thus, are not cash shortfalls that are predicted over the next 12 months.

If the Company measured loss allowance for a financial instrument at lifetime expected credit loss model in the previous period, but determines at the end of a reporting period that the credit risk has not increased significantly since initial recognition due to improvement in credit quality as compared to the previous period, the Company again measures the loss allowance based on 12 months expected credit losses.

When making the assessment of whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company uses the change in the risk of a default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument instead of the change in the amount of expected credit losses. To make that assessment, the Company compares the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the reporting date with the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the date of initial recognition and considers reasonable and supportable information, that is available without undue cost or effort, that is indicative of significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition.

For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

Further, for the purpose of measuring lifetime expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables, the Company has used a practical expedient as permitted under Ind AS 109. This expected credit loss allowance is computed based on a provision matrix which takes into account historical credit loss experience and adjusted for forward looking information.

m. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.

n. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for events of bonus issue; bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders; share split; and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

o. Cash dividend

The Company recognises a liability to make cash distributions to equity holders when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorised when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognised directly in equity.

p. Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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