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Bharat Agri Fert & Realty

BSE: 531862|ISIN: INE842D01011|SECTOR: Fertilisers
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Bharat Agri Fert & Realty is not listed on NSE
Mar 16
Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1 Significant Accounting Policies

1.1 Basis of preparation

The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 as amended by the Companies(Indian Accounting Standards)(Amendment) Rules, 2016 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 (“the Act”).

For all periods up to and including the year ended March 31, 2017, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Indian GAAP). These financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2018 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS. Refer to Note 40 for information on how the company has adopted Ind AS.

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value or revalued amount:

- Certain financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value or at amortised cost depending on the classification(refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments), - Employee defined benefit assets/(obligations) are recognised at the present value of the defined benefit obligations,

Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

2.2 Summary of significant accounting policies

(a) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Freehold land are stated at cost. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item is depreciated separately. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of property, plant and equipment is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing property, plant and equipment, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition of property, plant and equipment which take substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each balance sheet date is classified as capital advances under other non-current assets.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is de-recognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the Property, plant and equipment is derecognized.

Expenditure directly relating to construction activity is capitalized. Indirect expenditure incurred during construction period is capitalized to the extent to which the expenditure is indirectly related to construction or is incidental thereto. Other indirect expenditure (including borrowing costs) incurred during the construction period which is neither related to the construction activity nor is incidental thereto is charged to the statement of profit and loss.

Costs of assets not ready for use at the balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work- in- progress.

Depreciation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value

Depreciation is calculated on written down value basis over the useful lives estimated by the management based on internal assessment as follows:

The Company, based on internal assessments, believes that the useful live as given above represents period over which the Management expects to use these assets. Hence, the useful lives for these assets is difference from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013

The assets'' residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period. An asset''s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset''s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount. The residual values are not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset.

(b) Intangible assets

Intangible assets that are acquired by the Company are measured initially at cost. After initial recognition, an intangible asset is carried at its cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment loss.

Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only when it increases the future economic benefits from the specific asset to which it relates. An intangible asset is derecognized on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use and disposal.

Losses arising from retirement and gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Amortisation methods and periods

Intangible assets comprising of patents are amortized on a written down value basis over the useful life of five years which is estimated by the management.

The estimated useful lives of intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to reflect the changed pattern, if any.

(c) Impairment of non financial assets

The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

Impairment losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, to the extent the amount was previously charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(d) Foreign currency translation

(i) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of the entity are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (''the functional currency''). The financial statements are presented in Indian rupee (INR), which is entity''s functional and presentation currency.

(ii) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates are recognised in statement of profit or loss.

(e) Financial Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when a Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the Instruments.

Initial Recognition

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss and ancillary costs related to borrowings) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Classification and Subsequent Measurement: Financial Assets

The Company classifies financial assets as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (“FVOCI”) or fair value through profit or loss (“FVTPL”) on the basis of following:

- the entity''s business model for managing the financial assets and

- the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

(i) Amortised Cost

A financial asset shall be classified and measured at amortised cost if both of the following conditions are met:

- the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

(ii) Fair Value through other comprehensive income

A financial asset shall be classified and measured at fair value through OCI if both of the following conditions are met:

- the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

(iii) Fair Value through Profit or Loss

A financial asset shall be classified and measured at fair value through profit or loss unless it is measured at amortised cost or at fair value through OCI. All recognised financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortised cost or fair value, depending on the classification of the financial assets.

Classification and Subsequent Measurement: Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities at FVTPL or ''other financial liabilities''.

(i) Financial Liabilities at FVTPL

Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is held for trading or are designated upon initial recognition as FVTPL. Gains or Losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Other Financial Liabilities:

Other financial liabilities (including borrowings and trade and other payables) are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Impairment of financial assets

Financial assets, other than those at FVTPL, are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of each reporting period. The Company recognises a loss allowance for expected credit losses on financial asset. In case of trade receivables, the Company follows the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments for recognition of impairment loss allowance. The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. The Company calculates the expected credit losses on trade receivables using a provision matrix on the basis of its historical credit loss experience.

Derecognition of financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset''s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognised in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.

Derecognition of financial liabilities

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.

Equity investment in associates

Investment in associates are carried at cost. Impairment recognized, if any, is reduced from the carrying value.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

Derivative financial instruments

Derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

(f) Financial liabilities and equity instruments Classification as debt or equity

Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by a Company are recognised at the proceeds received.

(g) Taxes

(i) Current income tax

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income (OCI) or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

(ii) Deferred tax

Deferred income tax is recognized using the balance sheet approach, deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences at the balance sheet date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes.

Deferred income tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses, to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized.

The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilized.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

(iii) Minimum alternate Tax

MAT payable for a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognizes MAT credit available in the statement of profit and loss as deferred tax with a corresponding asset only to the extent that there is probability that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. The said asset is shown as ''MAT Credit Entitlement'' under Deferred Tax. The Company reviews the same at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have probable certainty that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(h) Inventories:

(a) Fertiliser Division:

Raw Materials and Stores and Spares are valued at lower of moving average cost or net realisable value.

Finished stocks are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower.

(b) Construction Division:

Inventory comprises completed property for sale and property under construction (Construction Work-in-Progress).

i. Completed unsold inventory is valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined by including cost of land (at book value), materials, services and other related proportionate overheads.

ii. Work-in-progress is valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost comprises cost of land (at book value),materials, services and other proportionate overheads related to projects under construction.

The valuation of inventories includes taxes, duties of non refundable nature and direct expenses and other direct cost attributable to the cost of inventory, net of excise duty/GST/ countervailing duty / education cess and value added tax.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. The net realizable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products. Raw materials and other supplies held for use in production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realizable value.

(I) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of third parties.

The Company collects taxes such as GST, sales tax/value added tax, service tax, etc on behalf of the Government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from the aforesaid revenue/ income.

The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

(i) Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of manufactured and traded goods is recognised when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

(ii) Interest income

Interest income, including income arising from other financial instruments measured at amortized cost, is recognized using the effective interest rate method.

(iii) Dividend income

Dividends are recognised when right to receive is established.

(iv) Construction and real estate development

Revenue from real estate is recognised on the transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyers by way of execution of documents. The Company has recognised the revenue on the basis of Percentage of Completion Method of accounting. Proportionate revenue is recognised in relation to sold area only. As per this method, revenue from sale of properties is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in proportion to the actual cost incurred, subject to such actual costs being 25% or more of the total estimated cost. The company recognise revenue in accordance Guidance Note on Accounting for Real Estate Transactions (for entities to whom Ind AS is applicable).

Revenue from trading activity, in property as well as Transferable Development Rights (TDR), is recognized when significant risk and rewards of the property/TDR are transferred to the buyer, as demonstrated by transfer of physical possession and transfer of the title in the property/TDR.

(j) Employee Benefit Obligations:

(i) Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognised in respect of employees'' services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

(ii) Post-employment obligations

The company operates the following post-employment schemes:

(a) defined benefit plans viz gratuity,

(b) defined contribution plans viz state governed provident fund scheme and employee pension scheme.

Gratuity obligations

The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.

Defined contribution plans

The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The company has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are accounted for as defined contribution plans and the contributions are recognised as employee benefit expense when they are due. Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in the future payments is available.

(k) Government Grants

Grants from the government are recognised at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the company will comply with all attached conditions. Government grants relating to income are deferred and recognised in the profit or loss over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate and presented within other income.

Government grants relating to the purchase of property, plant and equipment are included in non-current liabilities as deferred income and are credited to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the expected lives of the related assets and presented within other income.

(l) Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease.

The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

(i) As a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. Leases of property, plant and equipment where the company, as lessee, has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases.

Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the company as lessee are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor''s expected inflationary cost increases.

(ii) As a lessor

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company''s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

Lease income from operating leases where the company is a lessor is recognised in income on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the receipts are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the expected inflationary cost increases.

(m) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources, that can be reliably estimated, will be required to settle such an obligation.

A present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made, is disclosed as a contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are also disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non -occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

Claims against the Company where the possibility of any outflow of resources in settlement is remote, are not disclosed as contingent liabilities.

Contingent assets are not recognised in financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realised. However, when the realisation of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is not a contingent asset and is recognised.

(n) Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs that the Company incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds and is measured with reference to the effective interest rate (EIR) applicable to the respective borrowing.

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised as part of cost of such asset till such time as the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

(o) Segment Reporting - Identification of Segments

An operating segment is a component of the Company that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the company''s chief operating decision maker to make decisions for which discrete financial information is available. Based on the management approach as defined in Ind AS 108, the chief operating decision maker evaluates the Company''s performance and allocates resources based on an analysis of various performance indicators by business segments and geographic segments.

(p) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing:

- the profit attributable to owners of the company

- by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in equity shares issued during the year

Diluted earnings per share

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account:

- the after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity

- the weighted average number of additional equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(q) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company''s cash management.

(r) Current/non current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period The company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

(s) Rounding of amounts

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded off to the nearest Lakh as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated.

3 Significant accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions

The preparation of these financial statements in conformity with the recognition and measurement principles of Ind AS requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities, disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expense for the periods presented.

This note provides an overview of the areas that involved a higher degree of judgement or complexity, and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be different than those originally assessed. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in relevant notes together with information about the basis of calculation for each affected line item in the financial statements.

(i) Revenue recognition and valuation of unbilled revenue

The Company uses the percentage-of-completion method for recognition of revenue, accounting for unbilled revenue and contract cost thereon for its real estate and contractual projects. The percentage of completion is measured by reference to the stage of the projects and contracts determined based on the proportion of contract costs incurred for work performed to date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Use of the percentage-of-completion method requires the Company to estimate the efforts or costs expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts or costs to be expended. Significant assumptions are required in determining the stage of completion, the extent of the contract cost incurred, the estimated total contract revenue and contract cost and the recoverability of the contracts. These estimates are based on events existing at the end of each reporting date.

(ii) Fair value measurement of Financial Instruments

When the fair values of financials assets and financial liabilities recorded in the financial statements cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques which involve various judgements and assumptions.

(iii) Estimation of net realizable value for inventories

Inventory is stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value (NRV).NRV for completed inventory is assessed by reference to market conditions and prices existing at the reporting date and is determined by the Company, based on comparable transactions identified.

(iv) Impairment of non - financial assets

The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

(v) Recoverability of trade receivables

In case of trade receivables, the Company follows the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments for recognition of impairment loss allowance. The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. The Company calculates the expected credit losses on trade receivables using a provision matrix on the basis of its historical credit loss experience.

(vi) Useful lives of property, plant and equipment/intangible assets

The Company reviews the useful life of property, plant and equipment/intangible assets at the end of each reporting period. This reassessment may result in change in depreciation expense in future periods.

(vii) Defined benefit plans

The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and other post-employment medical benefits and the present value of the gratuity obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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