# On 7 November 2019, the Company through Qualified Institutions Placement (QIP) allotted 21,794,871 equity shares to the eligible Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIB) at a price of I 3,900 per equity share of I 2 face value (inclusive of premium of I 3,898 per share) aggregating to approximately I 8,500 crore. The issue was made in accordance with the SEBI (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2018. Funds received in the QIP of equity shares have been utilised for the purpose mentioned in the objects of the issue in the offer document.
On 14 September 2016, the Allotment Committee of the Board of Directors allotted 269,360,950 equity shares of face value of I 2 each as bonus shares in the proportion of one bonus equity share for every one equity share of face value of I 2 held as on the record date, by capitalising an amount of I 538,721,900 from securities premium account. The bonus shares were listed on BSE Limited and National Stock Exchange of India Limited w.e.f. 19 September 2016. Other than this, Company has not allotted any bonus shares in previous five years.
(b) Terms/rights/restrictions attached to equity shares
The Company has only one class of equity shares having a par value of I 2 per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The dividend recommended by the Board of Directors and approved by the shareholders in the Annual General Meeting is paid in Indian Rupees. In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.
Consequent to the opinion expressed by the ''Expert Advisory Committee'' of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India on the applicability of clause 22A.1 of the SEBI Guidelines, the balance unexercised equity shares held by the trust at the close of the year have been reduced against the share capital as if the trust is administered by the Company itself. The securities premium related to the unexercised equity shares held by the trust at the close of the year aggregating I 869,605,787 (As at 31 March 2020 I 670,428,124) has also been reduced from securities premium account and adjusted against the loan outstanding from the trust.
Dividends declared by the Company do not accrete to unexercised options. Accordingly, any dividend received by the ESOP trust is remitted to the Company and adjusted against the source from which dividend has been paid.
(i) Securities premium
Securities premium is used to record the premium on issue of shares. It can be utilised only for limited purposes in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.
(ii) Retained earnings
Retained earnings represents the surplus in Profit and Loss Account and appropriations.
The Company recognises change on account of remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability (asset) as part of retained earnings with separate disclosure, which comprises of: actuarial gains and losses;
return on plan assets, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset) ; and any change in the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset).
(iii) Reserve fund in terms of section 45-IC(1) of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934
Reserve fund is created as per the terms of Section 45 IC(1) of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 as a statutory reserve.
(iv) General reserve
Amounts set aside from retained profits as a reserve to be utilised for permissible general purpose as per Law.
(v) Infrastructure reserve created under section 36(1)(viii) of the Income Tax Act, 1961
Infrastructure reserve is created to avail the deduction as per the provisions of section 36(1)(viii) the Income Tax Act 1961 on profits derived from the business of providing long term finance for development of infrastructure facility in India.
(vi) Other comprehensive income On equity investments
The Company has elected to recognise changes in the fair value of certain investments in equity securities in other comprehensive income. These changes are accumulated in the FVOCI equity investments reserve. The Company transfers amounts from this reserve to retained earnings when the relevant equity securities are derecognised.
On debt investments
The Company recognises changes in the fair value of debt instruments held with a dual business objective of collect and sell in other comprehensive income. These changes are accumulated in the FVOCI debt investments reserve. The Company transfers amounts from this reserve to profit or loss when the debt instrument is sold. Any impairment loss on such instruments is reclassified immediately to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
On cash flow hedge reserve
It represents the cumulative gains/(losses) arising on revaluation of the derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges through OCI.
The Company recognises changes in the fair value of loans measured under FVOCI in other comprehensive income and impairment loss allowances are recognised in profit or loss.
(vii) Share options outstanding account
Share options outstanding account is created as required by Ind AS 102 ''Share Based Payments'' on the Employee Stock Option Scheme operated by the Company for employees of the group.
37 Earnings per share (EPS)
Basic EPS is calculated in accordance with Ind AS 33 ''Earnings per share'' by dividing the profit for the year attributable to equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted EPS is calculated by dividing the profit attributable to equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year plus the weighted average number of equity shares that would be issued on conversion of all the dilutive potential equity shares into equity shares of the Company.
38 Segment Information
The Company operates in a single reportable segment i.e. financing, since the nature of the loans are exposed to similar risk and return profiles hence they are collectively operating under a single segment. The Company operates in a single geographical segment i.e. domestic.
39 Transfer of financial assets that are derecognised in their entirety where the Company has continuing involvement
The Company has not transferred any assets that are derecognised in their entirety where the Company continues to have continuing involvement.
41 Employee benefit plans Defined benefit plans (A) Gratuity
The gratuity plan is governed by the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972. Under the Gratuity Act, an employee who has completed five years of service is entitled to specific benefits. The level of benefits provided depends on the member''s length of service, managerial grade and salary at retirement age.
(D) Provident fund
In case of certain employees, the Provident fund contribution is made to Bajaj Auto Ltd. Provident Fund Trust. In terms of the guidance note issued by the Institute of Actuaries of India, the actuary has provided a valuation of provident fund liability based on the assumptions listed below and determined that there is no shortfall as of 31 March 2021. The assumptions used in determining the present value of obligation of interest rate guarantee under deterministic approach
The Indian Parliament has approved the Code on Social Security, 2020 which subsumes the Provident Fund and the Gratuity Act and rules there under. The Ministry of Labour and Employment has also released draft rules thereunder on 13 November 2020, and has invited suggestions from stakeholders which are under active consideration by the Ministry. The Company will evaluate the rules, assess the impact, if any, and account for the same once the rules are notified and become effective.
42 Contingent liabilities and commitments
(a) Contingent liabilities not provided for in respect of
(H In Crore) As at 31 March
Disputed claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts
VAT matters under appeal
ESI matters under appeal
GST/Service tax matters under appeal
On interest subsidy
On penal interest/charges
Income tax matters
Appeals by the Company
Appeals by the Income tax department
(i) The Company is of the opinion that the above demands are not tenable and expects to succeed in its appeals/defense.
(ii) The Commissioner, Service Tax Commissionerate Pune, through an order dated 31 March 2017, has confirmed the demand of service tax of I 644.65 crore and penalties of I 198.95 crore from the Company in relation to the interest subsidy the Company received from manufacturers and dealers during the period 1 April 2010 to 30 September 2016. The Commissioner has also demanded payment of interest on the service tax amount confirmed until the date the Company pays the service tax demanded, which as at 31 March 2021 amounted to I 690.56 crore. In accordance with legal advice, the Company filed an appeal on 6 July 2017 with the Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal (CESTAT), Mumbai disputing the demands. The Company, in line with the opinion obtained from a senior legal counsel, is of view that the said demands are not tenable.
I n addition, the Principal Commissioner, Central GST and Central Excise, Commissionerate Pune -I, through order dated 3 February 2021, has confirmed the demand of service tax of I 217.22 crore and penalty thereon of I 21.72 crore from the Company in relation to the interest subsidy received from manufacturers and dealers during the period 1 October 2016 to 30 June 2017. The Principal Commissioner has also demanded payment of interest on the service tax amount confirmed until the date the Company pays the service tax demanded, which as at 31 March 2021 amounted to I 132.34 crore. In accordance with legal advice, the Company is in process to file an appeal with the Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal (CESTAT), Mumbai against the said demand. The Company, in line with the opinion obtained from a senior legal counsel, is of view that the said demands are not tenable.
(iii) The Commissioner, Central Excise and CGST, Pune -I, Commissionerate, through an order dated 7 September 2018, has confirmed the demand of service tax of I 53.87 crore and penalties of I 53.87 crore from the Company in relation to the penal interest/charges the Company received from the customers during the period 1 July 2012 to 31 March 2016. In addition, the Commissioner has demanded payment of interest on the service tax amount confirmed until the date the Company pays the service tax demanded, which as at 31 March 2021 amounted to I 59.54 crore. In accordance with legal advice, the Company filed an appeal on 26 December 2018 with the Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal, Mumbai disputing the demands. The Company, in line with the opinion obtained from a legal counsel, is of view that the said demands are not tenable.
In addition, the Principal Commissioner, Central GST and Central Excise, Pune -I Commissionerate, through an order dated 30 December 2019, has confirmed the demand of service tax of I 40.22 crore and penalty thereon of I 4.02 crore on penal interest/charges received by the Company from the customers during the period 1 April 2016 to 30 June 2017. The Principal Commissioner has also demanded payment of interest on the service tax amount demanded, until the date the Company pays the demand, which as at 31 March 2021, amounted to I 25.74 crore. In accordance with legal advice, the Company filed an appeal on 28 August 2020 with the Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal, Mumbai disputing the demands. The Company, in line with the opinion obtained from a legal counsel, is of view that the said demands are not tenable.
(iv) It is not practicable for the Company to estimate the timings of the cash flows, if any, in respect of the above pending resolution of the respective proceedings.
The Company actively manages its capital base to cover risks inherent to its business and meet the capital adequacy requirement of RBI. The adequacy of the Company''s capital is monitored using, among other measures, the regulations issued by RBI.
(i) Capital management Objective
The Company''s objective is to maintain appropriate levels of capital to support its business strategy taking into account the regulatory, economic and commercial environment. The Company aims to maintain a strong capital base to support the risks inherent to its business and growth strategies. The Company endeavours to maintain a higher capital base than the mandated regulatory capital at all times.
The Company''s assessment of capital requirement is aligned to its planned growth which forms part of an annual operating plan which is approved by the Board and also a long range strategy. These growth plans are aligned to assessment of risks - which include credit, liquidity and market.
The Company monitors its capital to risk-weighted assets ratio (CRAR) on a monthly basis through its assets liability management committee (ALCO).
The Company endeavours to maintain its CRAR higher than the mandated regulatory norm. Accordingly, increase in capital is planned well in advance to ensure adequate funding for its growth.
The Company''s dividend distribution policy states that subject to profit and other financial parameter as per applicable legal provision the Board shall endeavour to maintain a dividend payout in the range of 15% to 25% of profits after tax on standalone basis, to the extent possible.
The Company is also the provider of equity capital to its wholly owned subsidiaries and also provides them with non-equity capital where necessary. These investments are funded by the Company through its equity share capital and other equity which inter alia includes retained profits.
There have been no events after the reporting date that require adjustment/disclosure in these financial statements.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction in the principal (or most advantageous) market at the measurement date under current market conditions (i.e., an exit price), regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using a valuation technique.
In order to show how fair values have been derived, financial instruments are classified based on a hierarchy of valuation techniques.
This note describes the fair value measurement of both financial and non-financial instruments.
The Company has an internal fair value assessment team which assesses the fair values of assets qualifying for fair valuation.
The Company''s valuation framework includes:
Benchmarking prices against observable market prices or other independent sources;
Development and validation of fair valuation models using model logic, inputs, outputs and adjustments.
Use of fair values as determined by the derivative counter parties.
These valuation models are subject to a process of due diligence and validation before they become operational and are continuously calibrated. These models are subject to approvals by various functions including risk, treasury and finance functions. Finance function is responsible for establishing procedures, governing valuation and ensuring fair values are in compliance with accounting standards.
Valuation methodologies adopted
Fair values of financial assets, other than those which are subsequently measured at amortised cost, have been arrived at as under:
Fair values of investments held for trading under FVTPL have been determined under level 1 (refer note no. 48) using quoted market prices of the underlying instruments;
Fair values of investments in unquoted equity instruments designated under FVOCI have been measured under level 3 (refer note no. 48) at fair value based on a discounted cash flow model.
Fair values of investment in quoted equity and other instruments designated under FVOCI have been determined under level 1 using quoted market prices of the underlying instruments;
Fair value of loans held under a business model that is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and partially selling the loans through partial assignment to willing buyers and which contain contractual terms that give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest are designated under FVOCI. The fair value of these loans have been determined under level 3.
Cross currency interest rate swap (CCIRS) held for the purpose of hedging foreign currency denominated External Commercial Borrowings are accounted as a cash flow hedge. CCIRS is being considered under Level 2 for fair valuation which is performed through discounted cash flow method by deriving future forward rates from published zero coupon yield curve. All future cashflows for both the paying and receiving legs in the swap contract are discounted to present value using these forward rates and accordingly arrived at the valuation for a point of time.
The Company has determined that the carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, bank balances, trade receivables, short term loans, floating rate loans, investments in equity instruments designated under FVOCI, trade payables, short term debts, borrowings, bank overdrafts and other current liabilities are a reasonable approximation of their fair value and hence their carrying values are deemed to be fair values.
The Company determines fair values of its financial instruments according to the following hierarchy:
Level 1- valuation based on quoted market price: financial instruments with quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets that the Company can access at the measurement date.
Level 2- valuation using observable inputs: financial instruments with quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in inactive markets and financial instruments valued using models where all significant inputs are observable.
Level 3- valuation technique with significant unobservable inputs: financial instruments valued using valuation techniques where one or more significant inputs are unobservable.
(a) Liquidity and funding risk
The Company''s ALCO monitors asset liability mismatches to ensure that there are no imbalances or excessive concentrations on either side of the Balance Sheet.
The Company maintains a judicious mix of borrowings from banks, money markets, foreign market, public deposits and other deposits and continues to diversify its sources of borrowings with an emphasis on longer tenor borrowings. This strategy of balancing varied sources of funds and long tenor borrowings along with liquidity buffer framework has helped the Company maintain a healthy asset liability position and interest rate during the financial year 2020-21 (FY2021) - the weighted average cost of borrowing was 7.87% versus 8.40% during the financial year 2019-20 (FY2020) despite highly uncertain market conditions. The overall borrowings including debt securities, deposits and subordinated debts stood at I 99,865.84 crore as of 31 March 2021. As part of strategy to granularise its overall borrowings, the Company has increased contribution of public and other deposits to overall borrowings from 21% in FY2020 to 26% in FY2021.
The Company continuously monitors liquidity in the market; and as a part of its ALM strategy, the Company maintains a liquidity buffer managed by an active investment desk to reduce this risk. In a normal economic scenario liquidity buffer of 5% to 8% is maintained by the Company. During the year, amindst pandemic, the Company maintained significantly higher amount of liquidity buffer to safeguard itself against any significant liquidity risk. The average liquidity buffer for FY2021 was I 15,144.04 crore. The Company maintained a liquidity buffer of I 12,168.89 crore as on 31 March 2021.
49 Risk management objectives and policies (Contd.)
RBI vide Circular No. RBI/2019-20/88 DOR.NBFC (PD) CC. No.102/03.10.001/2019-20 has issued with guidelines on liquidity risk framework for NBFCs. It covers various aspects of Liquidity risk management in NBFCs such as granular level classification of buckets in structural liquidity statement and tolerance limits thereupon, Liquidity risk management tools and principles. The Company has formulated a policy on Liquidity Risk Management Framework which covers Liquidity Risk Management Policy, Strategies and Practices, LCR, stress testing, contingency funding plan, Maturity profiling, Liquidity Risk Measurement - Stock approach, Currency Risk, Interest Rate Risk and Liquidity Risk Monitoring Tools.
RBI has mandated minimum liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) of 50% to be maintained by December 2020, which is to be gradually increased to 100% by December 2024. The Company has LCR of 270% as of 31 March 2021 as against the LCR of 50% mandated by RBI.
The Company focuses on funding the balance sheet through long term liabilities against relatively short tenor assets. This practice lends itself to having an inherent ALM advantage due to large EMI inflow emanating from short tenor businesses which puts it in an advantageous position for servicing of its near term obligations.
Market risk is the risk that the fair value of future cash flow of financial instruments will fluctuate due to changes in the market variables such as interest rates, foreign exchange rates and equity prices.
(i) Interest rate risk
On investment book
The Company holds short duration investment portfolio and thus it has a minimum fair value change impact on its investment portfolio. The interest rate risk on the investment portfolio and corresponding fair value change impact is monitored using VaR and the parameters for monitoring the same are defined in its investment policy.
On assets and liabilities
Interest rate sensitivity on fixed and floating rate assets and liabilities with differing maturity profiles is measured by using the duration gap analysis. The same is computed monthly and sensitivity of the market value of equity assuming varied changes in interest rates are presented and monitored by ALCO.
The Company''s quoted equity investments carry a risk of change in prices. To manage its price risk arising from investments in equity securities, the Company periodically monitors the sectors it has invested in, performance of the investee companies, measures mark- to- market gains/losses and reviews the same.
(iii) Foreign currency risk
The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuation risk for its foreign currency borrowing (FCB). The Company''s borrowings in foreign currency are governed by RBI guidelines (RBI master direction RBI/FED/2018-19/67 dated 26 March 2019 and updated from time to time) which requires entities raising ECB for an average maturity of less than 5 years to hedge minimum 70% of the its ECB exposure (Principal and Coupon). The Company hedges its entire ECB exposure for the full tenure of the ECB as per Board approved Interest Rate risk, Currency risk and Hedging policy.
The Company for its FCB, evaluates the foreign currency exchange rates, tenure of FCB and its fully hedged costs. The Company manages its currency risks by entering into derivatives contracts as hedge positions and the same are being governed through the Board approved Interest rate risk, Currency risk and hedging policy.
The Company''s hedging policy only allows for effective hedging relationships to be considered as hedges as per the relevant Ind AS. Hedge effectiveness is determined at the inception of the hedge relationship, and through periodic prospective effectiveness assessments to ensure that an economic relationship exists between the hedged item and hedging instrument. The Company enters into hedge relationships where the critical terms of the hedging instrument match with the terms of the hedged item, and so a qualitative and quantitative assessment of effectiveness is performed.
(c) Credit risk
Credit risk is the risk of financial loss arising out of a customer or counterparty failing to meet their repayment obligations to the Company. It has a diversified lending model and focuses on six broad categories viz: (i) consumer lending, (ii) SME lending, (iii) rural lending, (iv) mortgages, (v) loan against securities, and (vi) commercial lending. The Company assesses the credit quality of all financial instruments that are subject to credit risk.
Classification of financial assets under various stages
The Company classifies its financial assets in three stages having the following characteristics:
stage 1: unimpaired and without significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition on which a 12-month allowance for ECL is recognised;
stage 2: a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition on which a lifetime ECL is recognised; and stage 3: objective evidence of impairment, and are therefore considered to be in default or otherwise credit impaired on which a lifetime ECL is recognised.
Unless identified at an earlier stage, all financial assets are deemed to have suffered a significant increase in credit risk when they are 30 days past due (DPD) or one instalment overdue on the reporting date and are accordingly transferred from stage 1 to stage 2. For stage 1 an ECL allowance is calculated based on a 12-month Point in Time (PIT) probability weighted probability of default (PD). For stage 2 and 3 assets a life time ECL is calculated based on a lifetime PD.
The Company offered One Time Restructing (OTR) on loans in accordance with RBI guidelines on ''Resolution Framework for COVID-19 related stress''. The Company has considered OTR as an early indicator of significant increase in credit risk and accordingly classified such loans as Stage 2.
Computation of impairment on financial instruments
The Company calculates impairment on financial instalments ECL approach prescribed under Ind AS 109 ''Financial instrument''. ECL uses three main components: PD, LGD (loss given default) and EAD (exposure at default) along with an adjustment considering forward macro economic conditions [refer note no.3.4(i) of significant accounting policies for methodology of computation of ECL].
The Company recaliberates components of its ECL model periodically by; (1) using the available incremental and recent information, except where these informations do not represent the future outcome, and (2) assessing changes to its statistical techniques for a granular estimation of ECL. The incremental information of the portfolio performance in FY2021 has not been considered appropriate for recaliberation of ECL model. This was due to the distortion caused by the pandemic induced lockdown resulting in very low economic activity, unforseen distortion of customers financial position and volitile repayment behaviour, leading to RBI announcing EMI moratorium and OTR. Given the temporary distortion of input variables, the Company has not recalibrated components of its ECL model.
Trade receivables and other financial assets were subjected to simplified ECL approach under Ind AS 109 ''Financial instruments''.
The nature of products across these broad product categories are either unsecured or secured by collateral. Although collateral is an important risk mitigant of credit risk, the Company''s practice is to lend on the basis of assessment of the customer''s ability to repay rather than placing primary reliance on collateral. Based on the nature of product and the Company''s assessment of the customer''s credit risk, a loan may be offered with suitable collateral. Depending on its form, collateral can have a significant financial effect in mitigating the Company''s credit risk.
The Company periodically monitors the market value of collateral and evaluates its exposure and loan to value metrics for high risk customers. The Company exercises its right of repossession across all secured products and primarily in its two wheeler and three wheeler financing business. It also resorts to invoking its right under the SARFAESI Act and other judicial remedies available against its mortgages and commercial lending business. The repossessed assets are either sold through auction or released to delinquent customers in case they come forward to settle their dues. For its loan against securities business, the Company recoups shortfall in value of securities through part recall of loans or additional securities from the customer, or sale of underlying securities. The Company does not record repossessed assets on its Balance Sheet as noncurrent assets held for sale.
The Company continues to grow its granularity of its Loans portfolio by expanding its geographic reach in order to reduce geographic concentrations while continually calibrating its product mix across its six categories of lending mentioned above.
Measurement uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of ECL estimates
Expected credit loss impairment allowances recognised in the financial statements reflect the effect of a range of possible economic outcomes, calculated on a probability-weighted basis, based on the economic scenarios described below. The recognition and measurement of expected credit losses (''ECL'') involves the use of estimation. It is necessary to formulate multiple forward-looking economic forecasts and its impact as an integral part of ECL model.
The global as well as the Indian economy has passed through a difficult phase in FY2021. The macro numbers have been a reflection of the impact which COVID-19 had on the industry, prices, employment and economy as a whole. The Company has adopted the use of three scenarios, representative of its view of forecast economic conditions, required to calculate unbiased expected loss. They represent a most likely outcome i.e. central scenario and two less likely outer scenarios referred to as the Upside and Downside scenarios. The Company has assigned a 10% probability to the two outer scenarios, while the Central scenario has been assigned an 80% probability. These weights are deemed appropriate for the unbiased estimation of impact of macro factors on ECL. The key scenario assumptions are used keeping in mind external forecasts and management estimates which ensure that the scenarios are unbiased.
The Company has used multiple economic factors and tested their correlations with past loss trends witnessed. The economic factors tested were GDP growth rates, growth of bank credit, wholesale price index (WPI), consumer price index (CPI), industrial production index, unemployment rate, crude oil prices and policy interest rates. Based on past correlation trends, CPI and unemployment rate were the two factors with acceptable correlation with past loss trends which were in line with Management views on the drivers of portfolio trends. These factors were assigned appropriate weights to measure ECL in forecast economic conditions.
During the year, the macro variables have been tested for their resilience in the difficult operating conditions of lockdown, loss of business on account of COVID-19 scare and social distancing norms. The first half of the year saw the maximum stress on the numbers with GDP growth turning negative to -23.9% unemployment rate touching a peak of 23%, retail inflation touching a high of 7.22% and IIP turning negative to the extent of over 57%. Almost all the macro-economic fundamentals have passed through the period of immense stress during the year. It was only after the first half year, that some of the economic fundamentals started showing signs of recovery.
The Central Scenario taken by the Company takes into account the stress and the downside risk prevalent during most part of the year, by capturing the macro variables numbers of the most difficult period of COVID-19 pandemic.
Amongst the list of macro indicators, unemployment and inflation are the two variables which are very critical from an income and expenditure perspective. Unemployment has a direct relation with the income levels and thus the growth of the economy from the expenditure side, inflation and inflationary expectations affect the disposable income of the people. Both the macro-variables directly and indirectly impact the disposable income of the people, which eventually drives the economy.
For unemployment, the Company has considered data published by a leading business information (BI) company engaged in monitoring of Indian economic indicators. The Unemployment rate, which averaged around 7.6% for FY20 jumped to 18% in the first quarter of FY21 and peaked at over 23% in April 2020. It continued to stay at elevated levels during the first half of the year i.e., April 2020 to September 2020 averaging at 13%. In the second half of FY2021, which can be construed as months of recovery and account for recovery in industrial production etc, the average unemployment rate numbers have moderated to 7.1%, with unemployment rate at 6.5% as of March 2021.
While formulating the Central Scenario, the Company has considered the peak unemployment rate of around 18% in Q1 FY2021 and assumed it to moderate thereafter.
For the downside scenario, while the Company believes that the downside risks might have passed, the rate of improvement may be slower and, therefore factored in a slow recovery rate. Accordingly, starting with a peak of 18% in March 2021 quarter, the downside scenario assumes it to fall from the peak but continue to stay at double-digit levels till March 2022.
For the upside scenario, the Company acknowledges various surveys and studies indicating improving employment situation as also industrial recovery. However, it maintained a caution stance that the unemployment levels after reaching the peak in March 2021 quarter, though may improve to a best case of 4% by the end of March 2022 but may come back to an historical (excluding COVID period) 4 year average of 6.45%. The unemployment numbers as such captured the impact of lockdown, migration of labour and various other restrictions hitting the overall employment environment.
Similarly, CPI which hovered between 3.50% to 5.84% for quarter ending September 2019 and December 2019, went to a high of 6.53% in Q1 FY2021, 6.96% in Q2 FY2021 and 6.38% in Q3 FY2021 respectively. While the Central Scenario assumed by the company considers the signs of easing inflation in Q4 FY2021 owing to improvement on the supply side, but it also acknowledges the COVID-19 impact, which still prevails in the economy. Accordingly, due to multiplicity of factors, Inflation is expected to remain moderately high till the end of this year. The CPI numbers as such reflects the stress impact due to lockdown and disruption in supply chains and increased prices for food and beverages.
For the downside scenario, the company believes that the inflation risk still remains and, therefore, assumes the Retail inflation to marginally see a uptick due to demand-supply imbalances and hit a peak of over 9% by the end of next year, before easing off to the average of pre-COVID period in the three-year time horizon.
For the upside scenario, we believe that there would be certain factors which might come into play viz, base effect, higher food grain production, better supply chain management and improving trade scenario etc, and, therefore, inflation may see easing to a minimum of over 2% before averaging back to the pre-COVID levels.
Risk management amidst COVID-19
The unprecedented health scare caused by COVID-19 which led to a countrywide lockdown in month of March 2020 and continued till May 2020 followed by gradual unlocking from June 2020, had a varying impact on different sectors of the economy. Salaried individuals had to contend with a scenario of reduced income and/or job losses. Corporates, SMEs and MSMEs struggled on account of reduced economic activities and business rhythm that was not efficient due to severe disruption in both demand and supply. All these lead to major cash flow constraints and erosion in the asset value, though temporary in nature. These developments severely tested risk management frameworks across the financial sector.
On 27 March 2020, the RBI, in order to provide relief on debt servicing obligations, permitted financial institutions to offer moratorium to their borrowers on instalments falling due between 1 March 2020 to 31 May 2020 which was further extended to 31 August 2020 vide RBI''s order dated 23 May 2020. With uncertainties caused by COVID-19 pandemic including the pace of easing of the lockdown restrictions, the time needed to restart the economy and attaining some level of normalcy, the credit performance and repayment behaviour of the customers was distorted and was monitored closely. The Company has witnessed significant movement of portfolio from stage 1 to stage 2 and stage 3 post moratorium period which ended on 31 August 2020 and accordingly accounted for higher credit cost in FY2021.
The Company observed elevated default on payment of instalments and collection related constraints which resulted in much higher credit costs in the current year compared to previous year. This was dispite the Company making requisite investment to deepen its collections infrastructure to control its credit costs by enhancing collection efforts, tightening in its risk underwriting policies as well as COVID-19 and macro overlay provision of I 850 crore in FY2020.
During the year, the Company, as a matter of prudence, has written off principal and interest amounts (including capitalised interest) of I 2,497 crore and I 482 crore respectively, of potentially unrecoverable loans, which were under moratorium, by utilising the available expected credit loss provision (including management overlay). The Company has carried a contingency provision of I 672 crore as on 31 March 2021.
Operational risk is the risk arising from inadequate or failed internal processes, people or systems, or from external events. The Company manages operational risks through comprehensive internal control systems and procedures laid down around various key activities in the Company viz. loan acquisition, customer service, IT operations, finance function etc. Internal Audit also conducts a detailed review of all the functions at least once a year, this helps to identify process gaps on timely basis. Further IT and Operations have a dedicated compliance and control units within the function who on continuous basis review internal processes. This enables the Management to evaluate key areas of operational risks and the process to adequately mitigate them on an ongoing basis.
The Company has put in place a robust Disaster Recovery (DR) plan and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to ensure continuity of operations including services to customers, if any eventuality is to happen such as natural disasters, technological outage etc. Robust periodic testing is carried, and results are analysed to address gaps in the framework, if any. DR and BCP audits are conducted on a periodical basis to provide assurance regarding the effectiveness of the Company''s readiness.
50 Employee stock option plan
The Board of Directors at its meeting held on 14 October 2009, approved an issue of stock options up to a maximum of 5% of the then issued equity capital of the Company aggregating to 1,829,803 equity shares of the face value of I 10 each in a manner provided in the SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines 1999 subject to the approval of the shareholders under Section 81(1 A) of the Companies Act, 1956. The shareholders of the Company vide their special resolution passed through postal ballot on 15 December 2009 approved the issue of equity shares of the Company under one or more Employee Stock Option Scheme(s). The shareholders, at the Annual General Meeting held on 16 July 2014, approved an additional issue of 677,313 stock options i.e. from 1,829,803 to 2,507,116 options of the face value of I 10 each under the stock options scheme of the Company i.e. Employee Stock Option Plan 2009.
Pursuant to the sub-division of each equity share of face value of I 10 into five equity shares of face value of I 2 on 10 September 2016 and allotment of bonus equity share in the proportion of one equity share of face value of I 2 for every one equity share on 14 September 2016, the aggregate number of equity shares which would be available for future grants under the Employee Stock Option Plan, 2009 were adjusted from 2,507,116 equity shares of face value of I 10 to 25,071,160 equity shares of face value of I 2 each.
Further, vide the Special Resolution passed by the members of the Company through postal ballot on 19 April 2021, the Company has approved the increase in the aforesaid limit of options by 10,000,000 options. The maximum limit under the scheme now stand revised from 25,071,160 options (adjusted for sub-division and bonus) to 35,071,160 options.
Vesting period of the options issued under the ESOP Scheme is on a straight line basis over the period of 4 years with the vesting condition of continuous employement with the Company or the Group except in case of death and retirement where the vesting would happen immediately.
(II) Exchange traded interest rate derivatives
The Company has not traded in exchange traded interest rate derivative during the current and previous year.
(III) Disclosures on risk exposure in derivatives(III) Details of financing of Parent Company products
The Company does not have any financing of Parent Company products during the current and previous year.
(IV) Details of Single Borrower Limit (SGL)/Group Borrower Limit (GBL) exceeded
The Company has not exceeded the prudential exposure limits during the current and previous year.
(V) Unsecured advances
Gross loans and advances includes unsecured advances of I 62,883.76 crore (Previous year I 62,076.36 crore) There are no advances secured against intangible assets.
The Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) is one of the key parameters closely monitored by RBI to enable a more resilient financial sector. The objective of the LCR is to promote an environment wherein balance sheet carry a strong liquidity for short term cash flow requirements. To ensure strong liquidity NBFCs are required to maintain adequate pool of unencumbered High-Quality Liquid Assets (HQLA) which can be easily converted into cash to meet their stressed liquidity needs for 30 calendar days. The LCR is expected to improve the ability of financial sector to absorb the shocks arising from financial and/or economic stress, thus reducing the risk of spill over from financial sector to real economy.
The Liquidity Risk Management of the Company is managed by the Asset Liability Committee (ALCO) under the governance of Board approved Liquidity Risk Framework and Asset Liability Management policy. The LCR levels for the balance sheet date is derived by arriving the stressed expected cash inflow and outflow for the next calendar month.
To compute stressed cash outflow, all expected and contracted cash outflows are considered by applying a stress of 15%. Similarly, inflows for the Company is arrived at by considering all expected and contracted inflows by applying a haircut of 25%.
Company for purpose of computing outflows, have considered: (1) all the contractual debt repayments, (2) committed credit facilities contracted with the subsidiaries and customers, and (3) other expected or contracted cash outflows. Inflows comprises of: (1) expected receipt from all performing loans, and (2) liquid investment which are unencumbered and have not been considered as part of HQLA.
For the purpose of HQLA the Company considers: (1) Unencumbered government securities, (2) Cash and Bank balances and (3) Pledged Government Securities for purpose of Statutory Liquid Ratio (SLR) with haircut of 20%.
The LCR is computed by dividing the stock of HQLA by its total net cash outflows over one-month stress period. LCR guidelines have become effective from 1 December 2020, requiring NBFCs to maintain minimum LCR of 50%, LCR is gradually required to be increased to 100% by 1 December 2024. NBFCs are required to maintain LCR of 50% as on 31 March 2021.
56 In accordance with the instructions in the RBI circular dated 7 April 2021, all lending institutions shall refund/adjust ''interest on interest'' to all borrowers including those who had availed working capital facilities during the moratorium period, irrespective of whether moratorium had been fully or partially availed, or not availed. Pursuant to these instructions, the Indian Banks Association (IBA) in consultation with other industry participants/bodies published
the methodology for calculation of the amount of such ''interest on interest''. Accordingly, the Company has made a provision of I 2.53 crore.
57 Amounts less than I 50,000 have been shown at actuals against respective line items statutorily required to be disclosed.