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Apollo Hospitals Enterprises

BSE: 508869|NSE: APOLLOHOSP|ISIN: INE437A01024|SECTOR: Hospitals & Medical Services
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '18

1 Significant accounting policies

This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the standalone financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented unless otherwise stated.

1.1 Statement of compliance

The standalone financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as per the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013 (the act) and other relevant provisions of the act.

The financial statements for the company for the year ended March 31, 2017 were audited by S. Viswanathan LLP (Firm’s Registration No: 004770S/S200025) the predecessor auditor.

The financial statements were authorised for issue by the Company’s Board of Directors on May 30, 2018.

1.2 Basis of preparation and presentation

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.

Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17 and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realisable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.

In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorised into Level 1, 2, or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety, which are described as follows:

Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;

Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and

Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.

The principal accounting policies are set out below

1.3 Business combinations

Acquisitions of businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the Company, liabilities incurred by the Company to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Company in exchange of control of the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.

At the acquisition date, the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recognised at their fair value, except that:

Deferred tax assets or liabilities, and assets or liabilities related to employee benefit arrangements are recognised and measured in accordance with Ind AS 12 Income Taxes and Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits respectively;

On acquisition, the Company assesses the classification of the acquiree’s assets and liabilities and reclassifies them where the classification is inappropriate for Company purposes.

Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any noncontrolling interests in the acquiree, and the fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree (if any) over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. The same is carried at cost and tested for impairment on an accrual basis in accordance with impairment policy stated below)

1.4 Goodwill

Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business (see note 3.3 above) less accumulated impairment losses, if any.

For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Company’s cash-generating units (or Company’s of cash-generating units) that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

A cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognised directly in profit or loss. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.

On disposal of the relevant cash-generating unit, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.

1.5 Revenue recognition

1.5.1 Rendering of services Healthcare Services

Revenue primarily comprises fees charged for inpatient and outpatient hospital services. Services include charges for accommodation, theatre, medical professional services, equipment, radiology, laboratory and pharmaceutical goods used. Revenue is recorded and recognised during the period in which the hospital service is provided, based upon the estimated amounts due from patients and/or medical funding entities. Unbilled revenue is recorded for the service where the patients are not discharged and invoice is not raised for the service. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. The service revenues are presented net of related doctor fees and other charges in cases where the company is not the primary obligor and does not have the pricing latitude.

Other Services

(i) Hospital Project Consultancy income is recognised as and when it becomes due, on percentage completion method, on achievement of milestones.

(ii) One time franchise fees/licence fees is recognised over the period of the agreement.

(iii) Income from clinical trials on behalf of pharmaceutical companies is recognised on completion of the services, based on terms and conditions specified to each contract.

(iv) Other services fee is recognized on basis of the services rendered and as per the terms of the agreement.

1.5.2 Sale of Goods

Pharmacy Sales are recognised when the risk and reward of ownership is passed to the customer. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. Revenue is reduced for rebates and loyalty points granted upon purchase and are stated net of returns and discounts wherever applicable

1.5.3 Loyalty Points

Sales of goods that result in award credits for customers, under the Company’s Loyalty Points Schemes are accounted for as multiple element revenue transactions and the fair value of the consideration received or receivable is allocated between the goods supplied and the award credits granted. The consideration allocated to the award credits is measured by reference to their fair value - the amount for which the award credits could be sold separately. Such consideration is not recognised as revenue at the time of the initial sale transaction - but is deferred and recognised as revenue when the award credits are redeemed and the Company’s obligations have been fulfilled.

1.5.4 Dividend and interest income

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).

Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

1.5.5 Rental income

The Company’s policy for recognition of revenue from operating leases is described in note 3.6.1 below.

1.6 Leasing

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

1.6.1 The Company as lessor

Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recognised as receivables at the amount of the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Company’s net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.

Rental income from operating leases is generally recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the Company’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognised in the year in which such benefits accrue. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

1.6.2 The Company as lessee

Rental expense from operating leases is generally recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognised in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.7 Foreign currencies

Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings.

1.8 Borrowings and Borrowing costs

Borrowings are recognised initially at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently stated at amortised cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value is recognised in the income statement over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest rate method. Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.

Interest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

1.9 Employee benefits

1.9.1 Retirement benefit costs and termination benefits

Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.

For defined benefit retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognised in other comprehensive income is not reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognised in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorised as follows:

- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);

- net interest expense or income; and

- Remeasurement

The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in profit or loss in the line item ‘Employee benefits expense’.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.

1.9.2 Short-term and other long-term employee benefits

A liability is recognised for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries, annual leave and sick leave in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.

Liabilities recognised in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.

1.10 Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability during the year.

1.10.1 Current tax

The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax’ as reported in the statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the Balance Sheet after off-setting advance tax paid and income tax provision.

1.10.2 Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the relevant entity intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

1.10.3 Current and deferred tax for the year

Current and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.

1.11 Property, plant and equipment

Land and buildings held for use in providing the healthcare and related services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land is not depreciated.

Expenses in the nature of general repairs and maintenance , i.e. in the nature of day to day service costs are charged to income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.

Parts of some items of property, plant and equipment may require replacement at regular intervals and this would enhance the life of the asset. The company recognises these in the carrying value of property, plant & equipment and amortised over the period which is lower of replacement period and its useful life. The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognized in accordance with the derecognition provisions of Ind AS 16.

Fixtures and medical Equipments are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. All repairs and maintenance costs are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.

Depreciation is recognised so as to depreciate the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.

Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.

The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in profit or loss.

1.12 Intangible assets

1.12.1 Intangible assets acquired separately

Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

1.12.2 Intangible assets acquired in a business combination

Intangible assets acquired in a business combination and recognised separately from goodwill are initially recognised at their fair value at the acquisition date (which is regarded as their cost).

Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets acquired in a business combination are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets that are acquired separately.

1.12.3 Derecognition of intangible assets

An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.

1.12.4 Useful lives of intangible assets

Estimated useful lives of the intangible assets are as follows:

1.13 Review of useful life and method of depreciation

The amortisation period and method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period to check if the expected useful life of the asset changes from previous estimates, the effect of such change in estimates are accounted for prospectively.

1.14 Impairment of tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill

At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any).

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

1.15 Inventories

Inventories of medical consumables, drugs and stores & spares are valued at cost or lower of net realizable value. Net Realizable Value represents the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Cost is determined as follows:

a. ’Medicines’ under healthcare segment is valued on First in First Out (FIFO) basis.

b. ’Medicines’ under retail pharmacies segment is valued on weighted average rates.

c. ’Stores and spares’ is valued on First in First Out (FIFO) basis.

d. ’Other consumables’ is valued on First in First Out (FIFO) basis.

1.16 Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).

When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognised as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.

1.17 Contingent liabilities acquired in a business combination

Contingent liabilities acquired in a business combination are initially measured at fair value at the acquisition date. At the end of subsequent reporting periods, such contingent liabilities are measured at the higher of the amount that would be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37 and the amount initially recognised less cumulative amortisation recognised in accordance with Ind AS 18 Revenue.

1.18 Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of exceptional items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income (net of any attributable taxes) relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits/reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

1.19 Financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when a Company entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss.

1.19.1 Financial assets

All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.

All recognised financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortised cost or fair value, depending on the classification of the financial assets.

(i) Classification of financial assets

Financial Assets that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at amortised cost (except for debt instruments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial Assets that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) (except for debt instruments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

All other financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents. Cash and Cash Equivalents consist of balances with banks which are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage. Restricted cash and bank balances are classified and disclosed as other bank balances.

(ii) Amortised Cost and Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL. Interest income is recognised in profit or loss and is included in the “Other income” line item.

(iii) Investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI

On initial recognition, the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income pertaining to investments in equity instruments. This election is not permitted if the equity investment is held for trading. These elected investments are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs. Subsequently they are measured at fair value with gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the ‘Reserve for equity instruments through other comprehensive income’. The cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of the investments.

A financial asset is held for trading if:

- it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term; or

- on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or

- it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument or a financial guarantee.

Dividends on these investments in equity instruments are recognised in profit or loss when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably. Dividends recognised in profit or loss are included in the ‘Other income’ line item.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

Investments in equity instruments are classified as at FVTPL, unless the Company irrevocably elects on initial recognition to present subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income for investments in equity instruments which are not held for trading.

Debt instruments that do not meet the amortised cost criteria or FVTOCI criteria (see above) are measured at FVTPL. In addition, debt instruments that meet the amortised cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria but are designated as at FVTPL are measured at FVTPL.

A financial asset that meets the amortised cost criteria or debt instruments that meet the FVTOCI criteria may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases. The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on Remeasurement recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably.

Impairment of financial assets

The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognising impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost, debt instruments at FVTOCI, lease receivables, trade receivables, other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial asset, and financial guarantees not designated as at FVTPL.

For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

The impairment provisions for trade receivables is based on assumptions about risk of default and expected loss rates. The Company uses judgements in making certain assumptions and selecting inputs to determine impairment of these trade receivables, based on the Company’s historical experience towards potential billing adjustments, delays and defaults at the end of each reporting period. Derecognition of financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

Foreign exchange gains and losses

The fair value of financial assets denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of each reporting period.

- For foreign currency denominated financial assets measured at amortised cost and FVTPL, the exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss except for those which are designated as hedging instruments in a hedging relationship.

- Changes in the carrying amount of investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI relating to changes in foreign currency rates are recognised in other comprehensive income.

1.19.2 Financial liabilities and equity instruments

Classification as debt or equity

Debt and equity instruments issued by a Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by a Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Repurchase of the Company’s own equity instruments is recognised and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments.

Financial liabilities

All financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method or at FVTPL.

However, financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies, financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company, and commitments issued by the Company to provide a loan at below-market interest rate are measured in accordance with the specific accounting policies set out below :

Financial liabilities at FVTPL

Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is either contingent consideration recognised by the Company as an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies or is held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.

A financial liability is classified as held for trading if:

- it has been incurred principally for the purpose of repurchasing it in the near term; or

- on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or

- it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument.

A financial liability other than a financial liability held for trading or contingent consideration recognised by the Company as an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies, may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:

- such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise;

- the financial liability forms part of a Company of financial assets or financial liabilities or both, which is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Company’s documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the grouping is provided internally on that basis; or

- it forms part of a contract containing one or more embedded derivatives, and Ind AS 109 permits the entire combined contract to be designated as at FVTPL in accordance with Ind AS 109.

Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item.

However, for not-held-for-trading financial liabilities that are designated as at FVTPL, the amount of change in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability is recognised in other comprehensive income, unless the recognition of the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss, in which case these effects of changes in credit risk are recognised in profit or loss. The remaining amount of change in the fair value of liability is always recognised in profit or loss. Changes in fair value attributable to a financial liability’s credit risk that are recognised in other comprehensive income are reflected immediately in retained earnings and are not subsequently reclassified to profit or loss.

Gains or losses on financial guarantee contracts and loan commitments issued by the Company that are designated by the Company as at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in profit or loss.

Financial liabilities subsequently measured at amortised cost

Financial liabilities that are not held-for-trading and are not designated as at FVTPL are measured at amortised cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. The carrying amounts of financial liabilities that are subsequently measured at amortised cost are determined based on the effective interest method. Interest expense that is not capitalised as part of costs of an asset is included in the ‘Finance costs’ line item.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Financial guarantee contracts

A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument.

Financial guarantee contracts issued by a Company are initially measured at their fair values and, if not designated as at FVTPL, are subsequently measured at the higher of:

- the amount of loss allowance determined in accordance with impairment requirements of Ind AS 109; and

- the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 18.

Derecognition of financial liabilities

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange between with a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of an existing financial liability is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in profit or loss.

1.19.3 Derivative financial instruments

The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps. Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

1.20 Segment Reporting

The Company uses the management approach for reporting information about segments in annual financial statements. The management approach is based on the way the Chief Operating Decision maker organises segment within a company for making a operating decisions and assessing performance. Reportable segments are based on services, geography , legal structure, management structure and any other manner in which management disaggregates a company. Based on the management approach model the Company has determined that’s its business model is comprised of Healthcare services, Retail Pharmacy and Others.

1.21 Non Current Asset Held for Sale

The company classifies non-current assets held for sale if their carrying amounts will be principally recovered through a sale rather than through continuing use of assets and action required to complete such sale indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan to sell will be made or that the decision to sell will be withdrawn. Also, such assets are classified as held for sale only if the management expects to complete the sale within one year from the date of classification.

Non-current assets held for sale are measured at the lower of carrying amount and the fair value less cost to sell. Non-current assets are not depreciated or amortised.

1.22 Government Grants

Government grants are not recognised until there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attaching to them and that the grants will be received.

Government grants are recognised in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognises as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate. Specifically, government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire non-current assets are recognised as deferred revenue in the standalone balance sheet and transferred to profit or loss on a systematic and rational basis over the useful lives of the related assets.

Government grants that are receivable as compensation for expenses or losses already incurred or for the purpose of giving immediate financial support to the Company with no future related costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they become receivable.

1.23 Dividend

Dividend proposed or declared after the balance sheet date are not recognised as a liability at the balance sheet date. It is provided upon approval of shareholders.

1.24 Operating Cycle

Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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