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AAVAS Financiers

BSE: 541988|NSE: AAVAS|ISIN: INE216P01012|SECTOR: Finance - General
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Accounting Policy Year : Mar '19

1.1 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the Ind AS requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the accompanying disclosure and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting year. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the year in which the estimates are revised. Although these estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future years.

In particular, information about significant areas of estimation, uncertainty and critical judgments in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements is included in the following notes:

1.1.1 Business Model Assessment

The Company determines its business model at the level that best reflects how it manages groups of financial assets to achieve its business objective.

The Company considers the frequency, volume and timing of sales in prior years, the reason for such sales, and its expectations about future sales activity. However, information about sales activity is not considered in isolation, but as part of an holistic assessment of how company’s stated objective for managing the financial assets is achieved and how cash flows are realised. Therefore, the Company considers information about past sales in the context of the reasons for those sales, and the conditions that existed at that time as compared to current conditions.

Based on this assessment and future business plans of the Company, the management has measured its financial assets at amortised cost as the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to collect contractual cash flows, and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise to cash flows that are solely payments of principle and interest (‘the ‘SPPI criterion’).”

1.1.2 Defined employee benefit assets and liabilities

The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and other post-employment benefits and the present value of the gratuity obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.

1.1.3 Impairment losses on financial assets

The measurement of impairment losses across all categories of financial assets except assets valued at Fair value through P&L (FVTPL), requires judgement, in particular, the estimation of the amount and timing of future cash flows and collateral values when determining impairment losses and the assessment of a significant increase in credit risk. These estimates are driven by a number of factors, changes in which can result in different levels of allowances.

The Company’s Expected credit loss (ECL) calculations are outputs of complex models with a number of underlying assumptions regarding the choice of variable inputs and their interdependencies. Elements of the ECL models that are considered accounting judgements and estimates include:

- The Company’s model, which assigns Probability of default (PD)s

- The Company’s criteria for assessing if there has been a significant increase in credit risk and so allowances for financial assets should be measured on a Lifetime expected credit loss (LTECL) basis

- The segmentation of financial assets when their ECL is assessed on a collective basis

- Development of ECL models, including the various formulas and the choice of inputs

- Determination of associations between macroeconomic scenarios and, economic inputs, and the effect on PDs, Exposure at default (EAD)s and Loss given default (LGD)s

- Selection of forward-looking macroeconomic scenarios and their probability weightings, to derive the economic inputs into the ECL models

1.1.4 Share-based payments

Estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions requires determination of the most appropriate valuation model, which is dependent on the terms and conditions of the grant. This estimate also requires determination of the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life of the share option, volatility and dividend yield and making assumptions about them.

1.1.5 Fair value measurement:

When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques including the DCF model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgement is required in establishing fair values. Judgements include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments.

1.1.6 Effective Interest rate method

The Company’s EIR methodology, recognises interest income using a rate of return that represents the best estimate of a constant rate of return over the expected behavioural life of loans and recognises the effect of potentially different interest rates charged at various stages and other characteristics of the product life cycle (including prepayments and penalty interest and charges). This estimation, by nature, requires an element of judgement regarding the expected behaviour and life-cycle of the instruments, as well expected changes to the Company’s base rate and other fee income/expense that are integral parts of the instrument.

1.2 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent comprises cash in hand, demand deposits and time deposits with original maturity of less than three months held with bank, debit balance in cash credit account and balance in franking machine.

1.3 Revenue recognition

1.3.1 Interest and similar income

Interest income, for all financial instruments measured either at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter year, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset. The calculation takes into account all contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment options) and includes any fees or incremental costs that are directly attributable and are an integral part of the EIR, but not future credit losses.

The Company calculates interest income by applying the EIR to the gross carrying amount of financial assets other than credit-impaired assets. When a financial asset becomes credit-impaired and is, therefore, regarded as ‘Stage 3’, the Company calculates interest income by applying the effective interest rate to the net amortised cost of the financial asset. If the financial assets cures and is no longer credit-impaired, the Company reverts to calculating interest income on a gross basis.

1.3.2 Other charges and other interest

1.3.2.1 Overdue interest in respect of loans is recognized upon realisation.

1.3.2.2 Other ancillary charges are recognized upon realisation.

1.3.3 Commission on Insurance Policies

Commission on insurance policies sold is recognised on accrual basis when the Company under its agency code sells the insurance policies.

1.3.4 Dividend income

Dividend income is recognized when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity and the amount of the dividend can be measured reliably. This is generally when shareholders approve the dividend .

1.4 Foreign currency

The Company’s financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (INR) which is also the Company’s functional currency.

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.

Income and expenses in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date and exchange gains and losses arising on settlement and restatement are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of nonmonetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognized in OCI or profit or loss are also recognized in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).

1.5 Operating Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognized as operating leases. The Company has ascertained that the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases and therefore, the lease payments are recognized as per terms of the lease agreement in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.6 Property, plant and equipment (PPE) and Intangible assets PPE

PPE are stated at cost (including incidental expenses directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use) less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Subsequent expenditure related to PPE is capitalized only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these will flow to the Company and the cost of item can be measured reliably. Other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed off as and when incurred.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

1.7 Depreciation and amortization Depreciation

Depreciation is provided over the useful life of the asset as per Schedule-II of Companies Act 2013 and depreciation rates have been worked out by applying written down value method. The Company has used the following useful lives to provide depreciation on its PPE.

All fixed assets individually costing RS.5,000/- or less are fully depreciated in the year of installation/purchase. Amortization

Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life. The Company estimates the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed four years from the date when the asset is available for use. If the persuasive evidence exists to the affect that useful life of an intangible asset exceeds four years, the Company amortizes the intangible asset over the best estimate of its useful life.

1.8 Impairment of non-financial assets

The carrying amount of assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets, net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

1.9 Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

1.10 Contingent liabilities and assets

The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements Contingent liability is disclosed in the case of:

- A present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will not be required to settle the obligation.

- A present obligation arising from past events, when no reliable estimate is possible.

- A possible obligation arising from past events, unless the probability of outflow of resources is remote.

Contingent liabilities are reviewed at each balance sheet date. Contingent assets are not recognised. A contingent asset is disclosed, as required by Ind AS 37, where an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

1.11 Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

The Company provides gratuity benefits which is a defined benefit scheme. The cost of providing gratuity benefits is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year end. Separate actuarial valuation is carried out for each plan using the projected unit credit method.

Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the year in which they occur. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent years.

Past service costs are recognised in Profit or Loss on the earlier of: The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and The date that the Company recognises related restructuring costs

Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:

Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and Net interest expense or income

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absence as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date. The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes.

1.12 Taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax.

Current income tax

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities in accordance with Income tax Act, 1961. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date.

Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

1.13 Earning per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they are entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.14 Share based payments

Equity-settled share based payments to employees and others providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date. Details regarding the determination of the fair value of equity-settled share based payments transactions are set out in Note 30.

The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share based payments is expensed on a straight line basis over the vesting year, based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity. At the end of each reporting year, the Company revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss such that the cumulative expenses reflects the revised estimate, with a corresponding adjustment to the Share Based Payments Reserve.

The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.

1.15 Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

1.15.1 Financial Assets

1.15.1.1 Initial recognition and measurement

Financial assets, with the exception of loans and advances to customers, are initially recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Loans and advances to customers are recognised when funds are disbursed to the customers. The classification of financial instruments at initial recognition depends on their purpose and characteristics and the management’s intention when acquiring them. All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.

1.15.1.2 Classification and Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

- Debt instruments at amortised cost

- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

- Debt instruments and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

1.15.1.3 Debt instruments at amortised costs

A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method less impairment. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in interest income in the statement of profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

1.15.1.4 Debt instruments at FVTOCI

A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

- The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

- The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the P&L. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to P&L. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

1.15.1.5 Debt instruments at FVTPL

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

1.15.1.6 Equity Investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by- instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

The Company has accounted for its investments in Subsidiary at cost less impairment loss (if any).

1.15.2 Financial Liabilities

1.15.2.1 Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are classified and measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held-for trading or it is designated as on initial recognition. All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts and derivative financial instruments.

1.15.2.2 Classification and Subsequent measurement - Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to P&L. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

1.15.2.3 Loans and borrowings

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss. This category generally applies to borrowings.

1.15.3 Derivative financial instruments

The Company holds derivative to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures as well as interest fluctuations. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank.

Financial assets or financial liabilities, at fair value through profit or loss

This category has derivative financial assets or liabilities which are not designated as hedges. Any derivative that is not designated a hedge is categorized as a financial asset or financial liability, at fair value through profit or loss.

Derivatives not designated as hedges are recognized initially at fair value and attributable transaction costs are recognized in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss when incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, these derivatives are measured at fair value through profit or loss and the resulting exchange gains or losses are included in Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.15.4 Reclassification of financial assets and liabilities

The Company doesn’t reclassify its financial assets subsequent to their initial recognition, apart from the exceptional circumstances in which the Company acquires, disposes of, or terminates a business line. Financial liabilities are never reclassified.

1.15.5 De-recognition of financial assets and liabilities

1.15.5.1 Financial Assets

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is de-recognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset have expired. The Company also de-recognised the financial asset if it has transferred the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for de recognition.

The Company has transferred the financial asset if, and only if, either:

- It has transferred its contractual rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset or

- It retains the rights to the cash flows, but has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement.”

Pass-through arrangements are transactions whereby the Company retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of a financial asset (the ‘original asset’), but assumes a contractual obligation to pay those cash flows to one or more entities (the ‘eventual recipients’), when all of the following three conditions are met:

- The Company has no obligation to pay amounts to the eventual recipients unless it has collected equivalent amounts from the original asset, excluding short-term advances with the right to full recovery of the amount lent plus accrued interest at market rates.

- The Company cannot sell or pledge the original asset other than as security to the eventual recipients.

- The Company has to remit any cash flows it collects on behalf of the eventual recipients without material delay.

In addition, the Company is not entitled to reinvest such cash flows, except for investments in cash or cash equivalents including interest earned, during the year between the collection date and the date of required remittance to the eventual recipients.

A transfer only qualifies for derecognition if either:

- The Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset or

- The Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

The Company considers control to be transferred if and only if, the transferee has the practical ability to sell the asset in its entirety to an unrelated third party and is able to exercise that ability unilaterally and without imposing additional restrictions on the transfer.

When the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards and has retained control of the asset, the asset continues to be recognised only to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement, in which case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration the Company could be required to pay.

If continuing involvement takes the form of a written or purchased option (or both) on the transferred asset, the continuing involvement is measured at the value the Company would be required to pay upon repurchase. In the case of a written put option on an asset that is measured at fair value, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is limited to the lower of the fair value of the transferred asset and the option exercise price.

1.15.5.2 Financial Liabilities

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged, cancelled or expires. Where an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference between the carrying value of the original financial liability and the consideration paid is recognised in profit or loss.

1.16 Impairment of financial assets

1.16.1 Overview of the ECL principles

The Company is recording the allowance for expected credit losses for all loans and other debt financial assets not held at FVTPL, together with loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts, (in this section all referred to as ‘financial instruments’). Equity instruments are not subject to impairment under Ind AS 109.

The ECL allowance is based on the credit losses expected to arise over the life of the asset (the lifetime expected credit loss or LTECL), unless there has been no significant increase in credit risk since origination, in which case, the allowance is based on the 12 months’ expected credit loss (12mECL) as outlined in Note 1.16.2. The Company’s policies for determining if there has been a significant increase in credit risk are set out in Note 4(a) (4)(v).

The 12mECL is the portion of LTECLs that represent the ECLs that result from default events on a financial instrument that are possible within the 12 months after the reporting date.

Both LTECLs and 12mECLs are calculated on collective basis, depending on the nature of the underlying portfolio of financial instruments. The Company’s policy for grouping financial assets measured on a collective basis is explained in Note 4(a)(4)(vi).

The Company has established a policy to perform an assessment, at the end of each reporting year, of whether a financial instrument’s credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition. This is further explained in Note4(a)(4)(v).

Based on the above process, the Company group its loans into Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, as described below:

Stage 1: When loans are first recognised, the group recognises an allowance based on 12mECLs. Stage 1 loans also include facilities where the credit risk has improved and the loan has been reclassified from Stage 2 or Stage 3.

Stage 2: When a loan has shown a significant increase in credit risk since origination, the group records an allowance for the LTECLs. Stage 2 loans also include facilities, where the credit risk has improved and the loan has been reclassified from Stage 3.

Stage 3: Loans considered credit-impaired (as outlined in Note 4(a)(4)(i). The group records an allowance for the LTECLs.

For financial assets for which the Company has no reasonable expectations of recovering either the entire outstanding amount, or a proportion thereof, the gross carrying amount of the financial asset is reduced. This is considered a (partial) derecognition of the financial asset.

1.16.2 The calculation of ECLs

The Company calculates ECLs based on a probability-weighted scenarios and historical data to measure the expected cash shortfalls, discounted at an approximation to the EIR. A cash shortfall is the difference between the cash flows that are due to an entity in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the entity expects to receive.

The mechanics of the ECL calculations are outlined below and the key elements are, as follows:

- PD - The Probability of Default is an estimate of the likelihood of default over a given time horizon. A default may only happen at a certain time over the assessed year, if the facility has not been previously derecognised and is still in the portfolio.

- EAD - The Exposure at Default is an exposure at a default date. The EAD is further explained in Note 4(a)(4) (iii).

- LGD - The Loss Given Default is an estimate of the loss arising in the case where a default occurs at a given time. It is based on the difference between the contractual cash flows due and those that the lender would expect to receive, including from the realisation of any collateral. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the EAD. The LGD is further explained in Note 4(a)(4)(iv).

The maximum year for which the credit losses are determined is the expected life of a financial instrument.

Provisions for ECLs for undisbursed loan commitments are assessed as set out in Note 4(a)(3).

The mechanics of the ECL method are summarised below:

Stage 1: The 12mECL is calculated as the portion of LTECLs that represent the ECLs that result from default events on a financial instrument that are possible within the 12 months after the reporting date. The Company calculates the 12mECL allowance based on the expectation of a default occurring in the 12 months following the reporting date. These expected 12-month default probabilities are applied to an EAD and multiplied by the expected LGD.

Stage 2: When a loan has shown a significant increase in credit risk since origination, the Company records an allowance for the LTECLs. The mechanics are similar to those explained above, but PDs and LGDs are estimated over the lifetime of the instrument.

Stage 3: For loans considered credit-impaired (as defined in Note 4(a)(4)(i)), the Company recognizes the lifetime expected credit losses for these loans. The method is similar to that for Stage 2 assets, with the PD set at 100%.

Loan commitments: When estimating LTECLs for undisbursed loan commitments, the Company estimates the expected portion of the loan commitment that will be drawn down over its expected life. The ECL is then based on the present value of the expected shortfalls in cash flows if the loan is drawn down. The expected cash shortfalls are discounted at an approximation to the expected EIR on the loan.

For loan commitments, the ECL is recognised within Provisions.

1.16.3 Forward looking information

While estimating the expected credit losses, the Company reviews macro-economic developments occurring in the economy and market it operates in. On a periodic basis, the Company analyses if there is any relationship between key economic trends like GDP, Property Price Index, Unemployment rates, Benchmark rates set by the Reserve Bank of India, inflation etc. with the estimate of PD, LGD determined by the Company based on its internal data. While the internal estimates of PD, LGD rates by the Company may not be always reflective of such relationships, temporary overlays are embedded in the methodology to reflect such macro-economic trends reasonably.

1.16.4 Collateral repossessed

In its normal course of business, the Company does not physically repossess properties or other assets in its retail portfolio, but generally engages external or internal agents to recover funds generally at auctions to settle outstanding debt. Any surplus funds are returned to the customers/obligors. As a result of this practice, the residential properties under legal repossession processes are not recorded on the balance sheet and are treated as assets held for sale at (i) fair value less cost to sell or (ii) principle outstanding, whichever is less, at the repossession date.

1.16.5 Write-offs

Financial assets are written off either partially or in their entirety only when the Company has stopped pursuing the recovery. If the amount to be written off is greater than the accumulated loss allowance, the difference is first treated as an addition to the allowance that is then applied against the gross carrying amount. Any subsequent recoveries are credited to Statement of profit and loss account.

1.17 Fair value measurement

The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date using valuation techniques.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting year.

1.18 Dividend

The Company recognises a liability to make cash distributions to equity holders when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. Final dividends on shares are recorded as a liability on the date of approval by the shareholders and interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors.

1.19 Standard issued but not yet effective Ind AS 116 : Leases

In March 2019, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2019, notifying Ind AS 116, ‘Leases’. Ind AS 116 replaces Ind AS 17 ‘Leases’. Ind AS 116 is effective for annual years beginning on or after 1st April, 2019.

Ind AS 116 sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases and requires lessees to account for all leases under a single on-balance sheet model similar to the accounting for finance leases under Ind AS 17. The standard includes two recognition exemptions for lessees - leases of ‘low-value’ assets (e.g., personal computers) and short-term leases (i.e., leases with a lease term of 12 months or less). At the commencement date of a lease, a lessee will recognise a liability to make lease payments (i.e., the lease liability) and an asset representing the right to use the underlying asset during the lease term (i.e., the right-of-use asset). Lessees will be required to separately recognise the interest expense on the lease liability and the depreciation expense on the right-of-use asset.

The Company is evaluating the requirements of Ind AS 116 and its effect on the financial statements .

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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