QWhat is meant by ‘Stoploss’?
Stoploss is a buy or sell order which gets triggered automatically, once the stock reaches a certain price. The aim here is to limit the loss on a security (buy or sell) position.
A stop order to sell becomes a market order when the item is offered at or below the specified price. E.g.: If you have bought 1 share of RIL at Rs. 1,050, you will enter stoploss order at a price below Rs. 1,050, say Rs. 1,020. If RIL share price falls to Rs. 1,020, a sell stoploss order will get triggered, which limits your loss on account of purchase to Rs. 30.
Similarly, a stop order to buy becomes a market order when the item is bid at or above the specified price. E.g.: If you have short-sold 1 share of RIL at Rs. 1,050, you will enter stoploss order at a price above Rs. 1,050, say Rs. 1,070. If RIL share price rises to Rs. 1,070, a buy stoploss order will get triggered, which will limit your loss on account of sale to Rs. 20.
There are no set rules for stoploss orders. Traders deploy very tight stoploss orders, while investors may not need it also. Advantage of stoploss is it avoids the need for constant monitoring of share price. Its disadvantage is that short-term price fluctuations could trigger stoploss orders very frequently. Also, setting very narrow stoploss for shares historically having wide price fluctuations could lead to unnecessary triggers of stoploss.
E.g.: If you bought 1 share of RIL at Rs. 1050 with stoploss of Rs. 1020. This means that if the stock falls below 1020, your stoploss order will automatically become a market order and share will be sold at the then prevailing market price, not necessarily the stoploss price. Thus setting a stoploss order below the purchase price will limit the loss, but in a very fast-moving market, losses may be higher than expected.
QWhat is Member –Client Agreement Form?
This form is an agreement entered between client and broker in the presence of witness where the client agrees (is desirous) to trade/invest in the securities listed on the concerned Exchange through the broker after being satisfied of brokers capabilities to deal in securities. The member, on the other hand agrees to be satisfied by the genuineness and financial soundness of the client and making client aware of his (broker’s) liability for the business to be conducted.
QWhat is minimum number of days for which bid should remain open in book building?
Book should remain open for minimum of 3 working days.
QWhat is Open book/closed book?
Presently, in issues made through book building, Issuers and merchant bankers are required to ensure online display of the demand and bids during the bidding period. This is the Open book system of book building. Here, the investor can be guided by the movements of the bids during the period in which the bid is kept open. Under closed book building, the book is not made public and the bidders will have to take a call on the price at which they intend to make a bid without having any information on the bids submitted by other bidders.
QWhat is Record Date?
Date set by a company on which the investor must own shares, to be eligible for dividend, share split, bonus, rights issue or other capital gains as declared / announced by the company. It is the date established by the company for determining the shareholders who are entitled to receive dividend, bonus or rights shares of the company.
In this case, it is also important to know what an ex-date is. Ex-date is the date on which the seller, and not the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to a recently announced dividend, bonus or other corporate action. The ex-date is usually a business day prior to the record date, since T+2 trading cycle is followed for clearing and settlement of trades in India.
If record date for dividend is set by a company as 4th March, then those investors, whose names appear on the shareholder list of 4th March, as received by the company form the depository will be entitled to the dividend. Doing a back-calculation, for an investors name to feature in the 4th March shareholder list, he should be holding the shares two days prior to that date i.e. on 2nd March (due to T+2 cycle). Thus, those shareholders holding shares at end of day 2nd March, will be entitled to the dividend. The ex-date, in this case, will be 3rd March, a date on which the buyer will not be entitled to the dividend declared.
QWhat is repo rate and reverse repo rate?
Repo or repurchase option is a means of short-term borrowing, wherein banks sell approved government securities to RBI and get funds in exchange. In other words, in a repo transaction, RBI repurchases government securities from banks, depending on the level of money supply it decides to maintain in the country's monetary system.
Repo rate is the discount rate at which banks borrow from RBI. Reduction in repo rate will help banks to get money at a cheaper rate, while increase in repo rate will make bank borrowings from RBI more expensive. If RBI wants to make it more expensive for the banks to borrow money, it increases the repo rate. Similarly, if it wants to make it cheaper for banks to borrow money, it reduces the repo rate.
Reverse repo is the exact opposite of repo. In a reverse repo transaction, banks purchase government securities form RBI and lend money to the banking regulator, thus earning interest. Reverse repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrows money from banks. Banks are always happy to lend money to RBI since their money is in safe hands with a good interest.
Thus, repo rate is always higher than the reverse repo rate.
QWhat is reservation on competitive basis?
Reservation on Competitive Basis is when allotment of shares is made in proportion to the shares applied for by the concerned reserved categories. Reservation on competitive basis can be made in a public issue to the Employees of the company, Shareholders of the promoting companies in the case of a new company and shareholders of group companies in the case of an existing company, Indian Mutual Funds, Foreign Institutional Investors (including non resident Indians and overseas corporate bodies), Indian and Multilateral development Institutions and Scheduled Banks.
QWhat is Return on Equity (RoE)?
Return on Equity, also known as Return on Networth or Return on Shareholders Funds, indicates profitability of a company by measuring how much the shareholders earned for their investment in the company. The higher the percentage, the more efficiently equity base has been utilized, indicating better return to investors.
RoE is ratio of net income (available for equity shareholders) to average shareholders' equity.
RoE = ___________________Profit After Tax___________________
Equity Share capital + Free Reserves – Miscellaneous Expd.
E.g. If net profit is Rs.100 crore, Equity share capital is Rs.100 crore, Reserves and Surplus is Rs.900 crore, Miscellaneous Expd. Nil
RoE = 100___
100 + 900
Return on Equity is 10%.
QWhat is Safety Net?
Any safety net scheme or buy-back arrangements of the shares proposed in any public issue shall be finalized by an issuer company with the lead merchant banker in advance and disclosed in the prospectus. Such buy back or safety net arrangements shall be made available only to all original
resident individual allottees limited up to a maximum of 1000 shares per allottee and the offer is kept open for a period of 6 months from the last date of dispatch of securities. The details regarding Safety Net are covered under Clause 8.18 of DIP Guidelines.
QWhat is SEBI's Role in an Issue?
Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a rights issue of value of more than Rs.50 lakhs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. The company can proceed further on the issue only after getting observations from SEBI. The validity period of SEBI’s observation letter is three months only ie. the company has to open its issue within three months period.
QWhat is Short Selling and Securities Lending & Borrowing?
Short Selling means selling of a stock that the seller does not own at the time of trade. Short selling can be done by borrowing the stock through Clearing Corporation/Clearing House of a stock exchange which is registered as Approved Intermediaries (AIs). Short selling can be done by retail as well as institutional investors. Naked short sale is not permitted in India, all short sales must result in delivery, and information on short sale has to be disclosed to the exchange by end of day by retail investors, and at the time of trade for institutional investors. The Securities Lending and Borrowing mechanism allows short sellers to borrow securities for making delivery. Securities in the F&O segment are eligible for short selling.
Securities Lending and Borrowing (SLB) is a scheme that has been launched to enable settlement of securities sold short. SLB enables lending of idle securities by the investors through the clearing corporation/clearing house of stock exchanges to earn a return through the same. For securities lending and borrowing system, clearing corporations/clearing house of the stock exchange would be the nodal agency and would be registered as the “Approved Intermediaries”(AIs) under the Securities Lending Scheme, 1997.
Under SLB, securities can be borrowed for a period of 7 days through a screen based order matching mechanism. Securities in the F&O segment are eligible for SLB.
QWhat is Soft underwriting?
Soft underwriting is when an underwriter agrees to buy the shares at later stages as soon as the pricing process is complete. He then, immediately places those shares with institutional players. The risk faced by the underwriter as such is reduced to a small window of time. Also, the soft underwriter has the option to invoke a force Majeure (acts of God) clause in case there are certain factors beyond the control that can affect the underwriter’s ability to place the shares with the buyers.
QWhat is STT?
Securities Transaction Tax (STT) is a tax being levied on all transactions done on the stock exchanges at rates prescribed by the Central Government from time to time. Pursuant to the enactment of the Finance (No.2) Act, 2004, the Government of India notified the Securities Transaction Tax Rules, 2004 and STT came into effect from October 1, 2004.
QWhat is swap ratio?
Swap ratio is an exchange ratio used in case of mergers and acquisitions. It is the ratio in which the acquiring company offers its own shares in exchange for the target company's shares. To calculate the swap ratio, companies analyze financial ratios such as book value, earnings per share, profits after tax as well as other factors, such as size of company, long-term debts, strategic reasons for the merger or acquisition and so on.
For example, if company A is acquiring company B and offers a swap ratio of 1:5, it will issue one share of its own company (company A) for every 5 shares of the company B being acquired. In other words, if company B has 10 crore outstanding equity shares and 100% of it is being acquired by company A, then company A will issue 2 crore new equity shares of company A to the shareholders of company B, proportionately.
QWhat is T2T segment on BSE?
Trade-to-trade (T2T) or T segment on BSE is segment in which no intra-day trading is allowed for shares falling in that segment, as each trade results in delivery. Transactions placed in this segment have to be mandatorily settled on gross basis i.e. by taking or giving delivery even if you have bought and sold the shares during the same settlement cycle.
If you buy shares, you must pay the money and take delivery.
If you sell shares, you must give the delivery of shares and you will get money.
If you buy today and sell today and don’t have delivery, then the sell position will go in to auction and you will have to pay heavy penalty.
QWhat is the amount of faith that I can lay on the contents of the documents? And whom should I approach if there are any lacunae?
The document is prepared by an independent specialized agency called Merchant Banker, which is registered with SEBI. They are required to do through due diligence while preparing an offer document. The draft offer document submitted to SEBI is put on website for public comments. In case, you have any information about the issuer or its directors or any other aspect of the issue, which in your view is not factually reflected, you may send your complaint to Lead Manager to the issue or to SEBI, Division of Issues and Listing.
QWhat is the difference between an offer document, Red Herring Prospectus, a prospectus and an abridged prospectus? What does it mean when someone says “draft offer doc”?
“Offer document” means Prospectus in case of a public issue or offer for sale and Letter of Offer in case of a rights issue, which is filed Registrar of Companies (ROC) and Stock Exchanges. An offer document covers all the relevant information to help an investor to make his/her investment decision. “Draft Offer document” means the offer document in draft stage. The draft offer documents are filed with SEBI, atleast 21 days prior to the filing of the Offer Document with ROC/ SEs. SEBI may specifies changes, if any, in the draft Offer Document and the issuer or the Lead Merchant banker shall carry out such changes in the draft offer document before filing the Offer Document with ROC/ SEs. The Draft Offer document is available on the SEBI website for public comments for a period of 21 days from the filing of the Draft Offer Document with SEBI.
QWhat is the difference between cash EPS and EPS?
Cash EPS takes into account the cash flow generated by a company on a per share basis, while EPS looks at the net income generated on a per share basis, for a given period. Like EPS, higher the cash EPS, better it is considered.
Cash EPS = Operating cash flow for the period
Weighted average number of equity shares outstanding
Cash EPS can be computed from EPS by adjusting for depreciation, amortization of goodwill and other non-cash items such as deferred tax and intangibles.
QWhat is the difference between rights and bonus shares?
Bonus shares means new shares given free of cost to all the existing shareholders of the company, in proportion to their holdings. For example, a company announcing bonus issue of 1:5, is issuing one (new) bonus share for every five shares held by the shareholders of the company.
Rights issues are a proportionate number of shares available to all the existing shareholders of the company, which can be bought at a given price (usually at a discount to current market price) for a fixed period of time. For example, a company announcing rights issue of 2:3 at Rs. 100 per share (current share price Rs. 130 per share), is issuing two (new) rights shares for every three shares held by the shareholders of the company at Rs. 100 per share. The rights shares can also be sold in the open market. If not subscribed to, the rights shares lapse on closure of the offer.
QWhat is the difference between the primary market and the secondary market?
In the primary market, securities are offered to public for subscription for the purpose of raising capital or fund. Secondary market is an equity trading avenue in which already existing/pre- issued securities are traded amongst investors. Secondary market could be either auction or dealer market. While stock exchange is the part of an auction market, Over-the-Counter (OTC) is a part of the dealer market.
QWhat is the difference between ‘Block deal’ and ‘Bulk deal’?
Block deal is a trade, with a minimum quantity of 5,00,000 shares or minimum value of Rs. 5 crores, executed through a single transaction, on the special “Block Deal window”.
Bulk deal is a trade, where total quantity bought or sold is more than 0.5% of the number of equity shares of the company.
The orders in a block deal are not shown to the people who trade from normal trade window. Bulk orders, on the other hand, are visible to everyone.
QWhat is the main difference between offer of shares through book building and offer of shares through normal public issue?
Price at which securities will be allotted is not known in case of offer of shares through book building while in case of offer of shares through normal public issue, price is known in advance to investor. In case of Book Building, the demand can be known everyday as the book is built. But in case of the public issue the demand is known at the close of the issue.
QWhat is the maximum brokerage that a broker can charge?
The maximum brokerage that can be charged by a broker has been specified in the Stock Exchange Regulations and hence, it may differ from across various exchanges. As per the BSE & NSE Bye Laws, a broker cannot charge more than 2.5% brokerage from his clients.
QWhat is the minimum application money I need to pay?
This differs from issue to issue. In a normal issue, the Lead managers decide the value and this would be notified on the form. In a book building issue, a price range is declared and the investors who quote higher value would be allotted. In Highlights page of any IPO these issues are explained in detail.
QWhat is the pay-in day and pay- out day?
Pay in day is the day when the brokers shall make payment or delivery of securities to the exchange. Pay out day is the day when the exchange makes payment or delivery of securities to the broker. Settlement cycle is on T+2 rolling settlement basis w.e.f. April 01, 2003. The exchanges have to ensure that the pay out of funds and securities to the clients is done by the broker within 24 hours of the payout. The Exchanges will have to issue press release immediately after pay out.