QWhat is an Abridged Prospectus?
Abridged Prospectus means the memorandum as prescribed in Form 2A under sub-section (3) of section 56 of the Companies Act, 1956. It contains all the salient features of a prospectus. It accompanies the application form of public issues.
QWhat is an Account Period Settlement?
An account period settlement is a settlement where the trades pertaining to a period stretching over more than one day are settled. For example, trades for the period Monday to Friday are settled together. The obligations for the account period are settled on a net basis. Account period settlement has been discontinued since January 1, 2002, pursuant to SEBI directives.
QWhat is an Auction?
The Exchange purchases the requisite quantity in the Auction Market and gives them to the buying trading member. The shortages are met through auction process and the difference in price indicated in contract note and price received through auction is paid by member to the Exchange, which is then liable to be recovered from the client.
QWhat is an e-IPO?
A company proposing to issue capital to public through the on-line system of the stock exchange for offer of securities can do so if it complies with the requirements under Chapter 11A of DIP Guidelines. The appointment of various intermediaries by the issuer includes a prerequisite that such members/registrars have the required facilities to accommodate such an online issue process.
QWhat is an Initial Public Offering?
Initial Public Offering (IPO) is when an unlisted company makes either a fresh issue of securities or an offer for sale of its existing securities or both for the first time to the public. This paves way for listing and trading of the issuer’s securities.
QWhat is an Introduction?
The introduction covers a summary of the industry and business of the issuer company, the offering details in brief, summary of consolidated financial, operating and other data. General Information about the company, the merchant bankers and their responsibilities, the details of brokers/syndicate members to the Issue, credit rating (in case of debt issue), debenture trustees (in case of debt issue), monitoring agency, book building process in brief and details of underwriting Agreements are given here. Important details of capital structure, objects of the offering, funds requirement, funding plan, schedule of implementation, funds deployed, sources of financing of funds already deployed, sources of financing for the balance fund requirement, interim use of funds, basic terms of issue, basis for issue price, tax benefits are covered.
QWhat is an IPO?
An Initial Public Offer (IPO) is a means of collecting money from the public by a company for the first time in the market to fund its projects. In return, the company gives the share to the investors in the company.
QWhat is Arbitration?
Arbitration is an alternative dispute resolution mechanism provided by a stock exchange for resolving disputes between the trading members and their clients in respect of trades done on the exchange.
QWhat is ASBA, with respect to IPOs?
ASBA stands for Application Supported by Blocked Amount. The facility was introduced by SEBI in July 2008 to help retail investors apply in IPOs, FPOs and rights issue of companies, with ease.
Earlier while making an application in an IPO, an investor had to pay full application money at the time of submission of the application form. In ASBA, one can make an application for shares without actually parting with the money immediately.
The amount for application money is only blocked in the account of the applicant. The money is debited from the bank account only when the basis of allotment is finalised and also only for number of shares that are finally allotted to the investor. Money blocked under ASBA is unblocked fully or partly as and when the shares are allotted or the issue is withdrawn.
Thus ASBA eliminates problems associated with delay or non-receipt of refunds. Moreover, banks continue to give interest on account as also the money blocked in the account is considered for calculating the average daily / quarterly balances. Thus, investors are saved of hassles on refund deposits while continuing to earn interest on the application money.
QWhat is Basis of Allocation/Basis of Allotment?
After the closure of the issue, the bids received are aggregated under different categories i.e., firm allotment, Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIBs), Non-Institutional Buyers (NIBs), Retail, etc. The oversubscription ratios are then calculated for each of the categories as against the shares reserved for each of the categories in the offer document. Within each of these categories, the bids are then segregated into different buckets based on the number of shares applied for. The oversubscription ratio is then applied to the number of shares applied for and the number of shares to be allotted for applicants in each of the buckets is determined. Then, the number of successful allottees is determined. This process is followed in case of proportionate allotment. In case of allotment for QIBs, it is subject to the discretion of the post issue lead manager.
QWhat is Capital Adequacy Ratio for banks?
Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), also known as Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR), is the measure of a bank's capital and is expressed as a percentage of a bank's risk weighted credit exposures.
CAR = Total Capital
Total Risk weighted assets
Total capital comprises of the bank’s Tier I and Tier II capital
Total risk weighted assets takes into account credit risk, market risk and operational risk.
Currently, RBI mandates minimum CRAR of 9%, but the Government of India has mandated total CRAR of 12%, with 8% Tier I capital.
QWhat is Commercial Paper?
Commercial paper is a money market instrument issued normally for tenure of 90 days. It is a short term promise to repay a fixed amount that is placed on the market either directly or through a specialized intermediary. It is usually issued by companies with a high credit standing in the form of a promissory note redeemable at par to the holder on maturity and therefore, doesn’t require any guarantee.
QWhat is debt-equity ratio?
Debt-equity ratio is a measure of leverage, indicating proportion of company's total capital contributed by secured and unsecured debt. A high debt-equity ratio, generally 2:1 and above, is not considered favourable for companies. Also, this ratio varies from industry to industry.
Debt-equity ratio = Secured + Unsecured debt
E.g.: As on 31st March 2010, company had secured loan of Rs. 70 crore, unsecured loan of Rs. 30 crore, shareholders funds (equity and reserves) of Rs. 200 crore.
Debt-equity ratio = 70 + 30
Debt-equity ratio = 0.5:1
QWhat is Differential pricing?
Pricing of an issue where one category is offered shares at a price different from the other category is called differential pricing. In DIP Guidelines differential pricing is allowed only if the securities to applicants in the firm allotment category is at a price higher than the price at which the net offer to the public is made. The net offer to the public means the offer made to the Indian public and does not include firm allotments or reservations or promoters’ contributions.
QWhat is dividend payout ratio?
Dividend Payout ratio, or simply payout ratio, is the percentage of a company’s earnings paid as dividends to the shareholders. It indicates how well the company’s earnings support the dividend payment.
Dividend Payout ratio = Dividend per equity share X 100
Earnings per share (EPS)
E.g.: For FY10, a company had EPS of Rs. 10. It paid dividend of 20% (Rs. 2 per equity share of Rs. 10 each) for the year.
Dividend payout ratio = Rs. 2 X 100
Dividend payout ratio = 20%
QWhat is dividend yield?
Dividend yield is dividend to price ratio. It is the percentage calculated by dividing dividend per share by price per share. Dividend yield is used to calculate the earning on investment (shares) considering only the returns in the form of total dividends declared by the company during the year.
Dividend Yield = Interim + Final Dividend X 100
Market Price of the share
E.g.: For a company for FY10,
Interim dividend = Rs. 2 per share
Final dividend = Rs. 3 per share
Share price = Rs. 50
Dividend yield = 2 + 3
Dividend yield =10%
QWhat is enterprise value?
Enterprise value (EV) is the total value of the firm, reflecting the market value of the entire business. EV is calculated as under:
Add: Debt (secured and unsecured)
Add: Minority Interest
Add: Preference share capital
Less: Cash and cash equivalents
E.g.: If the market cap of company is Rs. 100 crore, it had debt of Rs. 40 crore and cash and bank balance of Rs. 10 crore, then the enterprise value is calculated as:
EV = 100 + 40 – 10 crore
= Rs. 130 crore
QWhat is EPS?
EPS or Earnings per share, is the net profit earned by the company divided by the number of outstanding equity shares. If any preference dividend is declared, it is subtracted from the net profit.
Eg: A company earned net profit of Rs. 100 crore for FY10. It has 5 crore outstanding equity shares. No fresh issue of equity shares was made during the year, implying that the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is 5 crore.
EPS = Net profit earned during the period
Weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period
EPS = 100 / 5
EPS = Rs. 20
QWhat is firm allotment?
A company making an issue to public can reserve some shares on “allotment on firm basis” for some categories as specified in DIP guidelines. Allotment on firm basis indicates that allotment to the investor is on firm basis. DIP guidelines provide for maximum % of shares, which can be reserved on firm basis. The shares to be allotted on “firm allotment category” can be issued at a price different from the price at which the net offer to the public is made provided that the price at which the security is being offered to the applicants in firm allotment category is higher than the price at which securities are offered to public.
QWhat is Fixed Price offers?
An issuer company is allowed to freely price the issue. The basis of issue price is disclosed in the offer document where the issuer discloses in detail about the qualitative and quantitative factors justifying the issue price. The Issuer company can mention a price band of 20% (cap in the price band should not be more than 20% of the floor price) in the Draft offer documents filed with SEBI and actual price can be determined at a later date before filing of the final offer document with SEBI / ROCs.
QWhat is free-float?
Free-float refers to those shares which are readily available for trading in the stock market. It generally excludes promoters\' holding, government / strategic holding and other locked-in shares, which will not come to the market for trading in the normal course.
E.g.: MMTC has Rs. 5 crore outstanding shares, of which 4.97 crore shares are held by the Government under promoter category. Only the balance 3.34 lakh shares comprise the free float of the company.
QWhat is Hard underwriting?
Hard underwriting is when an underwriter agrees to buy his commitment at its earliest stage. The underwriter guarantees a fixed amount to the issuer from the issue. Thus, in case the shares are not subscribed by investors, the issue is devolved on underwriters and they have to bring in the amount by subscribing to the shares. The underwriter bears a risk which is much higher in soft underwriting.
QWhat is Margin Trading Facility?
Margin Trading is trading with borrowed funds/securities. It is essentially a leveraging mechanism which enables investors to take exposure in the market over and above what is possible with their own resources. SEBI has been prescribing eligibility conditions and procedural details for allowing the Margin Trading Facility from time to time.
Corporate brokers with net worth of at least Rs.3 crore are eligible for providing Margin trading facility to their clients subject to their entering into an agreement to that effect. Before providing margin trading facility to a client, the member and the client have been mandated to sign an agreement for this purpose in the format specified by SEBI. It has also been specified that the client shall not avail the facility from more than one broker at any time.
The facility of margin trading is available for Group 1 securities and those securities which are offered in the initial public offers and meet the conditions for inclusion in the derivatives segment of the stock exchanges.
For providing the margin trading facility, a broker may use his own funds or borrow from scheduled commercial banks or NBFCs regulated by the RBI. A broker is not allowed to borrow funds from any other source.
The "total exposure" of the broker towards the margin trading facility should not exceed the borrowed funds and 50 per cent of his "net worth". While providing the margin trading facility, the broker has to ensure that the exposure to a single client does not exceed 10 per cent of the "total exposure" of the broker.
Initial margin has been prescribed as 50% and the maintenance margin has been prescribed as 40%.
In addition, a broker has to disclose to the stock exchange details on gross exposure including name of the client, unique identification number under the SEBI (Central Database of Market Participants) Regulations, 2003, and name of the scrip.
If the broker has borrowed funds for the purpose of providing margin trading facility, the name of the lender and amount borrowed should be disclosed latest by the next day.
The stock exchange, in turn, has to disclose the scrip-wise gross outstanding in margin accounts with all brokers to the market. Such disclosure regarding margin-trading done on any day shall be made available after the trading hours on the following day.
The arbitration mechanism of the exchange would not be available for settlement of disputes, if any, between the client and broker, arising out of the margin trading facility. However, all transactions done on the exchange, whether normal or through margin trading facility, shall be covered under the arbitration mechanism of the exchange.
QWhat is meant by Unique Client Code?
In order to facilitate maintaining database of their clients and to strengthen the know your client (KYC) norms; all brokers have been mandated to use unique client code linked to the PAN details of the respective client which will act as an exclusive identification for the client.
QWhat is meant by ‘Right of first refusal’?
Right of first refusal, abbreviated as ROFR, is the right of a person (investor) or company to purchase something before the offering is made available to others. If an investor /PE fund plans to exit the company, it is obliged to give the promoters or existing shareholders, an opportunity to buy the shares held by the PE before selling the same to a third party.
There are other rights for minority shareholders, such as:
Tag along right - contractual obligation which protects a minority shareholder in case the majority / promoter is selling out. Minority shareholder can compel stake sale of his stake along with the majority / promoter.
Drag along right – contractual right with minority shareholder to force the majority shareholder / promoter to join in the sale of the company. If minority shareholder is selling-out, it can compel majority shareholder / promoter to compulsorily offer their stake as well.