QWhat documents should be obtained from broker on execution of trade?
You have to ensure receipt of the following documents for any trade executed on the Exchange:
a. Contract note in Form A to be given within stipulated time.
b. In the case of electronic issuance of contract notes by the brokers, the clients shall ensure that the same is digitally signed and in case of inability to view the same, shall communicate the same to the broker, upon which the broker shall ensure that the physical contract note reaches the client within the stipulated time.
It is the contract note that gives rise to contractual rights and obligations of parties of the trade. Hence, you should insist on contract note from stock broker.
QWhat does ISIN stand for wrt securities?
ISIN stands for International Securities Identification Number (ISIN). It is an international numbering system set up by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to number specific securities, such as stocks (equity and preference shares), bonds, options and futures.
ISIN contains 12 characters in total, which comprise of both alphabets and numbers. The first two digits stand for the country code, next nine digits are the unique identification number for the security while the last digit is a check digit to prevent errors.
E.g.: ISIN for State Bank of India (SBI) is INE062A01012.
QWhat does one mean by Lock-in?
Lock-in indicates a freeze on the shares. SEBI (DIP) Guidelines have stipulated lock-in requirements on shares of promoters mainly to ensure that the promoters or main persons who are controlling the company, shall continue to hold some minimum percentage in the company after the public issue.
QWhat does Open Interest mean?
Open Interest is the total number of outstanding contracts held by market participants at the end of the day. Alternatively, it is the total number of futures contracts that have not yet been exercised (squared off) or expired.
Open interest indicates the trend in the F&O market and measures the flow of money into the futures market. The open interest position represents the increase or decrease in the number of contracts for a day, and it is shown as a positive or negative number.
Calculation of Open Interest:
Each trade completed on the exchange has an impact upon the level of open interest for that day. There a three possibilities -
1.One new buyer, one new seller (both parties initiating a new position) - open interest will increase by one contract
2.One old buyer, one old seller (both parties are closing an existing/old position) - open interest will decline by one contract
3.One old buyer, one new buyer (old trader passing off his position to a new trader) - open interest remains unchanged
Increasing open interest means that new money is flowing into the marketplace. The result will be continuation of present trend (up, down or sideways).
Declining open interest means that market is liquidating and implies prevailing price trend is coming to an end.
QWhat does Secondary Market mean?
Secondary Market refers to a market where securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market via an IPO and/or listed on the Stock Exchange. Majority of the trading is done in the secondary market. Secondary market comprises of equity markets and the debt markets.
For the general investor, the secondary market provides an efficient platform for trading of his securities. For the management of the company, Secondary equity markets serve as a monitoring and control conduit—by facilitating value-enhancing control activities, enabling implementation of incentive-based management contracts, and aggregating information (via price discovery) that guides management decisions.
QWhat does ‘In the Money’, ‘Out of Money’, ‘At the Money’ mean, with respect to Call Option?
What does ‘In the Money’, ‘Out of Money’, ‘At the Money’ mean, with respect to Call Option? 19 Jun 2012 at 11:00 am A Call Option is said to be ‘In the Money’ if its strike price is less than the current stock price in the cash segment of the market. Exercising an ‘In the Money’ Call Option will lead to profit for the option holder.
Call Option is ‘At the Money’ if its strike price is equal to price of the underlying i.e. current stock price in the cash segment of the market. Exercising an ‘At the Money’ Call Option will lead to no profit / no loss situation for the option holder.
Call Option is said to be ‘Out of the Money’ if its strike price is more than the current stock price in the cash segment of the market. Option holder must not exercise an ‘Out of the Money’ Call Option as it will lead to loss.
E.g. If share price of ABC Ltd is Rs. 100 in the cash market, a call option will strike price of 90 is ‘In the Money’ call option, whereas a call option with strike price of 110 is ‘Out of Money’ call option and call option with strike price 100 is ‘At the Money’ Call option.
QWhat does ‘pari passu’ mean?
Pari passu is a Latin term commonly used in legal documents meaning ‘equal in all respects’ or ‘in the same degree or proportion’.
For example, if issue of new shares is said to rank pari passu with the existing shares, then the rights associated with both the existing as well as the new shares are exactly the same.
QWhat does “price discovery through book building process” mean?
“Book Building” means a process undertaken by which a demand for the securities proposed to be issued by a body corporate is elicited and built up and the price for the securities is assessed on the basis of the bids obtained for the quantum of securities offered for subscription by the issuer. This method provides an opportunity to the market to discover price for securities.
QWhat happens if I do not get my money or share on the due date?
In case a broker fails to deliver the securities or make payment on time, or if you have complaint against conduct of the stock broker, you can file a complaint with the respective stock exchange. The exchange is required to resolve all the complaints. To resolve the dispute, the complainant can also resort to arbitration as provided on the reverse of contract note /purchase or sale note. However, if the complaint is not addressed by the Stock Exchanges or is unduly delayed, then the complaints along with supporting documents may be forwarded to SEBI. Your complaint would be followed up with the exchanges for expeditious redressal.
In case of complaint against a sub broker, the complaint may be forwarded to the concerned broker with whom the sub broker is affiliated for redressal.
QWhat happens if the shares are not bought in the auction?
If the shares could not be bought in the auction i.e. if shares are not offered for sale in the auction, the transactions are closed out as per SEBI guidelines.
The guidelines stipulate that “the close out Price will be the highest price recorded in that scrip on the exchange in the settlement in which the concerned contract was entered into and up to the date of auction/close out OR 20% above the official closing price on the exchange on the day on which auction offers are called for (and in the event of there being no such closing price on that day, then the official closing price on the immediately preceding trading day on which there was an official closing price), whichever is higher.
Since, in the rolling settlement the auction and the close out takes place during trading hours, the reference price in the rolling settlement for close out procedures would be taken as the previous day’s closing price.
QWhat is a Capital Market?
Capital market is a market for buying and selling of long-term debt and equity shares. In this market, the capital funds comprising of both equity and debt are issued and traded. This also includes private placement sources of debt and equity as well as organized markets like stock exchanges. Capital market can be further divided into primary and secondary markets.
QWhat is a Cut Off Price?
In Book building issue, the issuer is required to indicate either the price band or a floor price in the red herring prospectus. The actual discovered issue price can be any price in the price band or any price above the floor price. This issue price is called “Cut off price”. This is decided by the issuer and LM after considering the book and investors’ appetite for the stock. SEBI (DIP) guidelines permit only retail individual investors to have an option of applying at cut off price.
QWhat is a draft prospectus?
A draft prospectus provides the information on the financials of the company, promoters, background, tentative issue price etc. It is filed by the Lead Managers with the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) to provide issue details. Overview of the draft prospectus can be seen on www.sebi.gov.in (SEBI’s web site). The final prospectus is printed after obtaining the clearance from SEBI and the Registrar of Companies (ROC).
QWhat is a Financial Statements?
Financial statement, changes in accounting policies in the last three years and differences between the accounting policies and the Indian Accounting Policies (if the Company has presented its Financial Statements also as per Either US GAAP/IAS are presented.
QWhat is a Follow on Public Offering?
A follow on public offering (FPO) is when an already listed company makes either a fresh issue of securities to the public or an offer for sale to the public, through an offer document. An offer for sale in such scenario is allowed only if it is made to satisfy listing or continuous listing obligations.
QWhat is a Green-shoe Option?
Green Shoe option means an option of allocating shares in excess of the shares included in the public issue and operating a post-listing price stabilizing mechanism for a period not exceeding 30 days in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VIIIA of DIP Guidelines, which is granted to a company to be exercised through a Stabilizing Agent. This is an arrangement wherein the issue would be over allotted to the extent of a maximum of 15% of the issue size. From an investor’s perspective, an issue with green shoe option provides more probability of getting shares and also that post listing price may show relatively more stability as compared to market.
QWhat is a Money Market?
Money market is a market for debt securities that pay off in the short term usually less than one year, for example the market for 90-days treasury bills. This market encompasses the trading and issuance of short term non equity debt instruments including treasury bills, commercial papers, bankers acceptance, certificates of deposits, etc.
QWhat is a Preferential Issue?
A preferential issue is an issue of shares or of convertible securities by listed companies to a select group of persons under Section 81 of the Companies Act, 1956 which is neither a rights issue nor a public issue. This is a faster way for a company to raise equity capital. The issuer company has to comply with the Companies Act and the requirements contained in Chapter pertaining to preferential allotment in SEBI (DIP) guidelines which inter-alia include pricing, disclosures in notice etc.
QWhat is a price band?
The red herring prospectus may contain either the floor price for the securities or a price band within which the investors can bid. The spread between the floor and the cap of the price band shall not be more than 20%. In other words, it means that the cap should not be more than 120% of the floor price. The price band can have a revision and such a revision in the price band shall be widely disseminated by informing the stock exchanges, by issuing press release and also indicating the change on the relevant website and the terminals of the syndicate members. In case the price band is revised, the bidding period shall be extended for a further period of three days, subject to the total bidding period not exceeding thirteen days.
QWhat is a Red Herring Prospectus?
Red Herring Prospectus is a prospectus, which does not have details of either price or number of shares being offered, or the amount of issue. This means that in case price is not disclosed, the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. On the other hand, an issuer can state the issue size and the number of shares are determined later. An RHP for and FPO can be filed with the RoC without the price band and the issuer, in such a case will notify the floor price or a price band by way of an advertisement one day prior to the opening of the issue. In the case of book-built issues, it is a process of price discovery and the price cannot be determined until the bidding process is completed. Hence, such details are not shown in the Red Herring prospectus filed with ROC in terms of the provisions of the Companies Act. Only on completion of the bidding process, the details of the final price are included in the offer document. The offer document filed thereafter with ROC is called a prospectus.
QWhat is a Rights Issue?
Rights Issue (RI) is when a listed company which proposes to issue fresh securities to its existing shareholders as on a record date. The rights are normally offered in a particular ratio to the number of securities held prior to the issue. This route is best suited for companies who would like to raise capital without diluting stake of its existing shareholders unless they do not intend to subscribe to their entitlements.
QWhat is a Rolling Settlement?
In a Rolling Settlement, trades executed during the day are settled based on the net obligations for the day.
Presently the trades pertaining to the rolling settlement are settled on a T+2 day basis where T stands for the trade day. Hence, trades executed on a Monday are typically settled on the following Wednesday (considering 2 working days from the trade day).
The funds and securities pay-in and pay-out are carried out on T+2 day.
QWhat is a ‘Call’ option?
Call option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date.
For e.g.: Buying 1 call option of ONGC 1250 30Dec2010 comprising 250 equity shares for Rs. 80 per call will give the buyer the right to buy 250 ONGC shares on or before 30th December 2010 at Rs. 1,250 per share, irrespective of the share price (in cash market). Since it is only a right and no obligation to buy, the buyer can let this right lapse, which will be the case when ONGC share price is less than Rs. 1,250 in cash market. In the above case, loss is limited to Rs. 80 while the gains are unlimited to the buyer.
Rs. 80 paid is termed as option premium or the cost of purchasing 1 call option containing the pre-determined quantity of the underlying.
Selling a call option gives the seller the obligation to sell a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date, when the right is exercised by the buyer. For a seller of call option, profit is limited to the premium earned while loss it unlimited, as the buyer can exercise his call option anytime till the expiry of contract.
QWhat is a ‘Put’ option?
Put option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to sell a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date.
For e.g.: Buying 1 put option of ONGC 1250 30Dec2010 comprising 250 equity shares for Rs. 15 per put, will give the buyer the right to sell 250 ONGC shares on or before 30th December 2010 at Rs. 1,250 per share, irrespective of the share price (in cash market). Since it is only a right and no obligation to sell, the buyer can let this right lapse, which will be the case when ONGC share price is more than Rs. 1,250 in cash market. In the above case, loss is limited to Rs. 15 while the gains are unlimited to the buyer.
Rs. 15 paid is termed as option premium or the cost of purchasing 1 put option containing the pre-determined quantity of the underlying i.e. 250 ONGC equity shares.
Selling a put option gives the seller the obligation to buy a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date, when the right is exercised by the buyer. For a seller of put option, profit is limited to the premium earned while loss it unlimited, as the buyer can exercise his put option anytime till the expiry of contract.
QWhat is About us?
This presents a review of on the details of the business of the company, business strategy, competitive strengths, insurance, industry-regulation (if applicable), history and corporate structure, main objects, subsidiary details, management and board of directors, compensation, corporate governance, related party transactions, exchange rates, currency of presentation dividend policy and management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations are given.