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Larsen & Toubro

BSE: 500510|NSE: LT|ISIN: INE018A01030|SECTOR: Infrastructure - General
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Mar 16
Accounting Policy Year : Mar '17

(a) Statement of compliance

The company’s financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the Indian Accounting Standards (“Ind AS”) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 201 5 issued by Ministry of Corporate Affairs in respect of sections 133 read with sub-section (1) of Section 210A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956). In addition, the guidance notes/announcements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) are also applied except where compliance with other statutory promulgations require a different treatment. The financials for the year ended March 31, 2017 of the company are the first financial statements prepared in compliance with Ind AS. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 201 5. The financial statements upto the year ended March 31, 2016, were prepared in accordance with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 ( “ l-GAAP”) and other relevant provisions of the Act. The figures for the year ended March 31, 2016 have now been restated as per Ind AS to provide comparability. These financials statements have been approved for issue by the Board of Directors at their meeting held on May 29, 2017.

(b) Basis of accounting

The Company maintains accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention, except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair value in accordance with Ind AS and certain items of property, plant and equipment that were revalued in earlier years in accordance with the l-GAAP principles. The carrying value of all the items of property, plant and equipment and investment property as on date of transition is considered as the deemed cost.

Fair value measurements under Ind AS are categorised as below based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety:

- Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the company can access at measurement date;

- Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included in level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly: and

- Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the valuation of assets/liabilities

(c) Presentation of financial statements

The Balance Sheet and the Statement of Profit and Loss are prepared and presented in the format prescribed in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013 (“the Act”). The statement of cash flows has been prepared and presented as per the requirements of Ind AS 7 “Statement of Cash flows”. The disclosure requirements with respect to items in the Balance Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss, as prescribed in the Schedule III to the Act, are presented by way of notes forming part of the financial statements along with the other notes required to be disclosed under the notified Accounting Standards and the SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015.

Amounts in the financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees in crore [1 crore = 10 million] rounded off to two decimal places as permitted by Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013. Per share data are presented in Indian Rupees to two decimals places.

(d) Operating cycle for current and non-current classification

Operating cycle for the business activities of the company covers the duration of the specific project/contract/product line/service including the defect liability period wherever applicable and extends up to the realisation of receivables (including retention monies) within the agreed credit period normally applicable to the respective lines of business.

(e) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised based on nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and recovered with reasonable certainty. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and is reduced for estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances.

(i) Revenue from operations

Revenue includes excise duty and adjustments made towards liquidated damages and price variation wherever applicable. Escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/acknowledged by customers are not taken into account.

A. Sale of goods

Revenue from the sale of manufactured and traded goods is recognised when the goods are delivered and titles have been passed, provided all the following conditions are satisfied:

1. significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the buyer;

2. the company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the good sold;

3. the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

4. it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the company; and

5. the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

B. Revenue from construction/project related activity and contracts for supply/commissioning of complex plant and equipment is recognised as follows:

1. Cost plus contracts: Revenue from cost plus contracts is determined with reference to the recoverable costs incurred during the period and the margin as agreed with the customer.

2. Fixed price contracts: Contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of cost incurred till such time the outcome of the job cannot be ascertained reliably subject to condition that it is probable that such cost will be recoverable. When the outcome of the contract is ascertained reliably, contract revenue is recognised at cost of work performed on the contract plus proportionate margin, using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is the proportion of cost of work performed to-date, to the total estimated contract costs.

The estimated outcome of a contract is considered reliable when all the following conditions are satisfied:

i. the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

ii. it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the contract will flow to the company;

iii. the stage of completion of the contract at the end of the reporting period can be measured reliably; and

iv. the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the contract can be measured reliably.

Expected loss, if any, on a contract is recognised as expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract.

For contracts where progress billing exceeds the aggregate of contract costs incurred to-date and recognised profits (or recognised losses, as the case may be), the surplus is shown as the amount due to customers. Amounts received before the related work is performed are disclosed in the Balance Sheet as a liability towards advance received. Amounts billed for work performed but yet to be paid by the customer are disclosed in the Balance Sheet as trade receivables. The amount of retention money held by the customers is disclosed as part of other current assets and is reclassified as trade receivables when it becomes due for payment.

C. Revenue from property development activity which are in substance similar to delivery of goods is recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership in the land and/or building are transferred to the customer and a reasonable expectation of collection of the sale consideration from the customer exists.

D. Revenue from property development activity in the nature of a construction contract is recognised based on the ‘Percentage of completion method’ (POC) when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably upon fulfillment of all the following conditions:

1. all critical approvals necessary for commencement of the project have been obtained;

2. contract costs for work performed (excluding cost of land/developmental rights and borrowing cost) constitute at least 25% of the estimated total contract costs representing a reasonable level of development;

3. at least 25% of the saleable project area is secured by contracts or agreements with buyers; and

4. at least 10% of the total revenue as per the agreements of sale or any other legally enforceable documents is realised at the reporting date in respect of each of the contracts and the parties to such contracts can be reasonably expected to comply with the contractual payment terms.

The costs incurred on property development activities are carried as “Inventories” till such time the outcome of the project cannot be estimated reliably and all the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled. When the outcome of the project can be ascertained reliably and all the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled, revenue from property development activity is recognised at cost incurred plus proportionate margin, using percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is determined based on the proportion of actual cost incurred to-date, to the total estimated cost of the project. For the purpose of computing percentage of construction, cost of land, developmental rights and borrowing costs are excluded.

Expected loss, if any, on the project is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract.

E. Rendering of services

Revenue from rendering services is recognised when the outcome of a transaction can be estimated reliably by reference to the stage of completion of the transaction. The outcome of a transaction can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied:

1. the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

2. it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the company;

3. the stage of completion of the transaction at the end of the reporting period can be measured reliably; and

4. the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

Stage of completion is determined by the proportion of actual costs incurred to-date, to the estimated total costs of the transaction Unbilled revenue represents value of services performed in accordance with the contract terms but not billed.

F. Revenue from contracts for rendering of engineering design services and other services which are directly related to the construction of an asset is recognised on the same basis as stated in (B) supra.

G. Commission income is recognised as and when the terms of the contract are fulfilled.

H. Other operational revenue represents income earned from the activities incidental to the business and is recognised when the right to receive the income is established as per the terms of the contract.

(ii) Other income

A. Interest income is accrued on a time basis by reference to the principal outstanding and the effective interest rate.

B. Dividend income is accounted in the period in which the right to receive the same is established.

C. Other government grants, which are revenue in nature and are towards compensation for the qualifying costs incurred by the company, are recognised as income in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which such costs are incurred.

D. Other items of income are accounted as and when the right to receive such income arises and it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the amount of income can be measured reliably.

(f) Exceptional items

An item of income or expense which by its size, type or incidence requires disclosure in order to improve an understanding of the performance of the company is treated as an exceptional item and the same is disclosed in the notes to accounts.

(g) Property, plant and equipment (PPE)

PPE is recognised when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. PPE is stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment, if any. Property, plant and equipment acquired on hire purchase basis are recognised at their cash values. Cost includes professional fees related to the acquisition of PPE and for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalised in accordance with the company’s accounting policy.

For transition to Ind AS, the company has elected to adopt as deemed cost, the carrying value of PPE measured as per l-GAAP less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment on the transition date of April 1, 201 5. In respect of revalued assets, the value as determined by valuers as reduced by accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment is taken as cost on transition date.

Own manufactured PPE is capitalised at cost including an appropriate share of overheads. Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to construction or acquisition of PPE or bringing the PPE to working condition are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the PPE.

PPE not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as “capital work-in-progress”. (Also refer to policies on leases, borrowing costs, impairment of assets and foreign currency transactions infra).

Depreciation is recognised using straight line method so as to write off the cost of the assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives specified in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, or in the case of assets where the useful life was determined by technical evaluation, over the useful life so determined. Depreciation method is reviewed at each financial year end to reflect the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. The estimated useful life and residual values are also reviewed at each financial year end and the effect of any change in the estimates of useful life/residual value is accounted on prospective basis.

Where cost of a part of the asset (“asset component”) is significant to total cost of the asset and useful life of that part is different from the useful life of the remaining asset, useful life of that significant part is determined separately and such asset component is depreciated over its separate useful life.

Depreciation on additions to/deductions from, owned assets is calculated pro rata to the period of use. Extra shift depreciation is provided on a location basis.

Depreciation charge for impaired assets is adjusted in future periods in such a manner that the revised carrying amount of the asset is allocated over its remaining useful life.

Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated on a straight line basis over the lease term. Where there is reasonable certainty that the company shall obtain ownership of the assets at the end of the lease term, such assets are depreciated based on the useful life prescribed under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 or based on the useful life adopted by the company for similar assets.

Freehold land is not depreciated.

(h) Investment property

Properties, including those under construction, held to earn rentals and/or capital appreciation are classified as investment property and measured and reported at cost, including transaction costs.

For transition to Ind AS, the company has elected to adopt as deemed cost, the carrying value of investment property as per l-GAAP less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment as on the transition date of April 1, 201 5. In respect of revalued assets, the value as determined by valuers as reduced by accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment, is taken as cost on transition date.

Depreciation is recognised using straight line method so as to write off the cost of the investment property less their residual values over their useful lives specified in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 or in case of assets where the useful life was determined by technical evaluation, over the useful life so determined. Depreciation method is reviewed at each financial year end to reflect the expected pattern of consumption of the future benefits embodied in the investment property. The estimated useful life and residual values are also reviewed at each financial year end and the effect of any change in the estimates of useful life/ residual value is accounted on prospective basis. Freehold land and properties under construction are not depreciated.

An investment property is derecognised upon disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from the disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognision of property is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same period.

(i) Intangible assets

Intangible assets are recognised when it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. Intangible assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated amortisation and cumulative impairment. Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to acquisition of intangible assets are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible assets.

Research and development expenditure on new products:

(i) Expenditure on research is expensed under respective heads of account in the period in which it is incurred.

(ii) Development expenditure on new products is capitalised as intangible asset, if all of the following can be demonstrated:

A. the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale;

B. the company has intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it;

C. the company has ability to use or sell the intangible asset;

D. the manner in which the probable future economic benefits will be generated including the existence of a market for output of the intangible asset or intangible asset itself or if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of intangible assets;

E. the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset; and

F. the company has ability to reliably measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

Development expenditure that does not meet the above criteria is expensed in the period in which it is incurred.

Intangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as “intangible assets under development”.

Intangible assets are amortised on straight line basis over the estimated useful life. The method of amortisation and useful life is are reviewed at the end of each accounting year with the effect of any changes in the estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

Amortisation on impaired assets is provided by adjusting the amortisation charge in the remaining periods so as to allocate the asset’s revised carrying amount over its remaining useful life.

(j) Impairment of assets

As at the end of each accounting year, the company reviews the carrying amounts of its PPE, investment property, intangible assets and investments in subsidiary, associate and joint venture companies to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If such indication exists, the said assets are tested for impairment so as to determine the impairment loss, if any. Goodwill and the intangible assets with indefinite life are tested for impairment each year.

Impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is determined:

(i) in the case of an individual asset, at the higher of the net selling price and the value in use; and

(ii) in the case of a cash generating unit (a group of assets that generates identified, independent cash flows), at the higher of the cash generating unit’s net selling price and the value in use.

(The amount of value in use is determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life. For this purpose, the discount rate (pre-tax) is determined based on the weighted average cost of capital of the company suitably adjusted for risks specified to the estimated cash flows of the asset).

For this purpose, a cash generating unit is ascertained as the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets.

If recoverable amount of an asset (or cash generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, such deficit is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss as impairment loss and the carrying amount of the asset (or cash generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount.

When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss is recognised for the asset (or cash generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(k) Employee Benefits

(i) Short term employee benefits:

Employee benefits such as salaries, wages, short term compensated absences, expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia and performance-linked rewards falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and are expensed in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(ii) Post-employment benefits:

A. Defined contribution plans: The company’s superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and employee pension scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

B. Defined benefit plans: The employees’ gratuity fund schemes and employee provident fund schemes managed by board of trustees established by the company, the post-retirement medical care plan and the company pension plan represent defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows using a discount rate based on the market yield on government securities of a maturity period equivalent to the weighted average maturity profile of the defined benefit obligations at the Balance Sheet date.

Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability or asset) and any change in the effect of asset ceiling (wherever applicable) is recognised in other comprehensive income and is reflected in retained earnings and the same is not eligible to be reclassified to profit or loss.

Defined benefit employee costs comprising current service cost, past service cost and gains or losses on settlements are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as employee benefits expense. Interest cost implicit in defined benefit employee cost is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss under finance cost. Gains or losses on settlement of any defined benefit plan are recognised in profit or loss when such settlement occurs. Past service cost is recognised as expense at the earlier of the plan amendment or curtailment and when the company recognises related restructuring costs or termination benefits.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

(iii) Long term employee benefits:

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absences, long service award etc. is measured at present value of estimated future cash flows expected to be made by the company and is recognised in a similar manner as in the case of defined benefit plans vide (ii)(B) supra.

Long term employee benefit costs comprising current service cost and gains or losses on curtailments and settlements, remeasurements including actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as employee benefit expenses. Interest cost implicit in long term employee benefit cost is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss under finance cost.

(iv) Termination benefits:

Termination benefits such as compensation under employee separation schemes are recognised as expense when the company’s offer of the termination benefit is accepted or when the company recognises the related restructuring costs whichever is earlier.

(I) Leases

The determination of whether an agreement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of the agreement at the date of inception.

(i) Finance leases:

A. Leases where the company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the related assets are classified as finance leases. Assets under finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period.

B. Assets given under a finance lease are recognised as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Lease income is recognised over the period of the lease so as to yield a constant rate of return on the net investment in the lease.

(ii) Operating leases:

The leases which are not classified as finance lease are operating leases.

A. Lease rentals on assets under operating lease are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

B. Assets leased out under operating leases are continued to be shown under the respective class of assets. Rental income is recognised on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

(Also refer to policy on depreciation, supra)

(m) Financial instruments

Financial assets and/or financial liabilities are recognised when the company becomes party to a contract embodying the related financial instruments. All financial assets, financial liabilities and financial guarantee contracts are initially measured at transaction values and where such values are different from the fair value, at fair value. Transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from as the case may be, the fair value of such assets or liabilities, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss. In case of interest free or concession loans given to subsidiary companies, the excess of the actual amount of the loan over initial measure at fair value is accounted as an equity investment.

The financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and presented on net basis in the Balance Sheet when there is a current legally enforceable right to set-off the recognised amounts and it is intended to either settle on net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

(i) Financial assets:

A. All recognised financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at amortised cost or at fair value depending on the classification of the financial assets as follows:

1. Investments in debt Instruments that are designated as fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL) - at fair value.

2. Other investments in debt instruments - at amortised cost, subject to following conditions:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and

- The contractual terms of instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

3. Debt instruments that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) (unless the same are designated as fair value through profit or loss)

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

- The contractual terms of instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

4. Investment in equity instruments issued by subsidiary, associates and joint ventures are measured at cost less impairment.

5. Investment in preference shares of the subsidiary companies are treated as equity instruments if the same are convertible into equity shares or are redeemable out of the proceeds of equity instruments issued for the purpose of redemption of such investments. Investment in preference shares not meeting the aforesaid conditions are classified as debt instruments at FVTPL.

6. Investments in equity instruments are classified as at FVTPL, unless the related instruments are not held for trading and the company irrevocably elects on initial recognition to present subsequent changes in fair value in Other Comprehensive Income.

B. For financial assets that are measured at FVTOCI, income by way of interest, dividend and exchange difference (on debt instrument) is recognised in profit or loss and changes in fair value (other than on account of such income) are recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in other equity. On disposal of debt instruments measured at FVTOCI, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in other equity is reclassified to profit or loss. In case of equity instruments measured at FVTOCI, such cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of investments.

C. A financial asset is primarily derecognised when:

1. the right to receive cash flows from the asset has expired, or

2. the company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a pass-through arrangement; and (a) the company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or b) the company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the carrying amount measured at the date of derecognition and the consideration received is recognised in profit or loss.

D. Impairment of financial assets: The company recognises impairment loss on trade receivables using expected credit loss model, which involves use of a provision matrix constructed on the basis of historical credit loss experience as permitted under Ind AS 109. Impairment loss on investments

(ii) Financial liabilities:

A. Financial liabilities, including derivatives and embedded derivatives, which are designated for measurement at FVTPL are subsequently measured at fair value. Financial guarantee contracts are subsequently measured at the amount of impairment loss allowance or the amount recognised at inception net of cumulative amortisation, whichever is higher.

All other financial liabilities including loans and borrowings are measured at amortised cost using Effective Interest Rate (EIR) method.

B. A financial liability is derecognised when the related obligation expires or is discharged or cancelled.

(iii) The company designates certain hedging instruments, such as derivatives, embedded derivatives and in respect of foreign currency risk, certain non-derivatives, as either fair value hedges or cash flow hedges or hedges of net investments in foreign operations. Hedges of foreign exchange risk on firm commitments are accounted as cash flow hedges.

A. Fair value hedges: Changes in fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as fair value hedges are recognised in profit or loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. The fair value adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item arising from the hedged risk is amortised to profit or loss from that date.

B. Cash flow hedges: In case of transaction related hedges, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity as ‘hedging reserve’. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss. Amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity relating to the effective portion, are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same head as the hedged item. The effective portion of the hedge is determined at the lower of the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument from inception of the hedge and the cumulative change in the fair value of the hedged item from the inception of the hedge and the remaining gain or loss on the hedging instrument is treated as ineffective portion.

In case of time period related hedges, the forward element and the spot element of a forward contract is separated and only the change in the value of the spot element of the forward contract is designated as the hedging instrument. Similarly, wherever applicable, the foreign currency basis spread is separated from the financial instrument and is excluded from the designation of that financial instrument as the hedging instrument in case of time period related hedges. The changes in the fair value of the forward element of the forward contract or the foreign currency basis spread of the financial instrument is accumulated in a separate component of equity as ‘cost of hedging’. The changes in the fair value of such forward element or foreign currency basis spread are reclassified to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment on a straight line basis over the period of the forward contract or the financial instrument.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognised in profit or loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

(iv) Compound financial instruments issued by the company which can be converted into fixed number of equity shares at the option of the holders irrespective of changes in the fair value of the instrument are accounted by separately recognising the liability and the equity components. The liability component is initially recognised at the fair value of a comparable liability that does not have an equity conversion option. The equity component is initially recognised at the difference between the fair value of the compound financial instrument as a whole and the fair value of the liability component. The directly attributable transaction costs are allocated to the liability and the equity components in proportion to their initial carrying amounts.

Subsequent to initial recognition, the liability component of the compound financial instrument is measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The equity component of a compound financial instrument is not remeasured subsequently.

(n) Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, components, construction materials, stores, spares and loose tools at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. However, these items are considered to be realisable at cost if the finished products in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost.

b) Manufacturing work-in-progress at lower of weighted average cost including related overheads or net realisable value. In some cases, manufacturing work-in-progress are valued at lower of specifically identifiable cost or net realisable value. In the case of qualifying assets, cost also includes applicable borrowing costs vide policy relating to borrowing costs.

c) Finished goods and stock-in-trade (in respect of goods acquired for trading) at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. Cost includes related overheads and excise duty paid/payable on such goods.

d) Completed property/work-in-progress (including land) in respect of property development activity at lower of specifically identifiable cost or net realisable value.

Assessment of net realisable value is made in each subsequent period and when the circumstances that previously caused inventories to be written-down below cost no longer exist or when there is clear evidence of an increase in net realisable value because of changed economic circumstances, the write-down, if any, in the past period is reversed to the extent of the original amount written-down so that the resultant carrying amount is the lower of the cost and the revised net realisable value.

(o) Cash and bank balances

Cash and bank balances also include fixed deposits, margin money deposits, earmarked balances with banks and other bank balances which have restrictions on repatriation. Short term and liquid investments being subject to more than insignificant risk of change in value, are not included as part of cash and cash equivalents.

(p) Securities premium account

(i) Securities premium includes:

A. The difference between the face value of the equity shares and the consideration received in respect of shares issued pursuant to Stock Options Scheme.

B. The fair value of the stock options which are treated as expense, if any, in respect of shares allotted pursuant to Stock Options Scheme.

(ii) The issue expenses of securities which qualify as equity instruments are written off against securities premium account.

(q) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs include interest expense calculated using the effective interest method, finance charges in respect of assets acquired on finance lease and exchange differences arising on foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.

Borrowing costs net of any investment income from the temporary investment of related borrowings, that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised/inventoried as part of cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

(r) Share-based payment arrangements

The stock options granted pursuant to the company’s Stock Options Scheme, are measured at the fair value of the options at the grant date. The fair value of the options is treated as discount and accounted as employee compensation cost over the vesting period on a straight line basis. The amount recognised as expense each year is arrived at based on the number of grants expected to vest. If a grant lapses after the vesting period, the cumulative discount recognised as expense in respect of such grant is transferred to the general reserve within equity.

The fair value of the stock options granted to employees of the company by the company’s subsidiaries is accounted as employee compensation cost over the vesting period and where such fair value is not recovered by the subsidiaries, the same is treated as dividend declared by them.

(s) Foreign currencies

(i) The functional currency and presentation currency of the company is Indian Rupee.

(ii) Transactions in currencies other than the company’s functional currency are recorded on initial recognition using the exchange rate at the transaction date. At each Balance Sheet date, foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currency are not retranslated. Exchange differences that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at each Balance Sheet date at the closing spot rate are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for:

A. exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings; and

B. exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks.

(iii) Financial statements of foreign operations whose functional currency is different than Indian Rupee are translated into Indian Rupees as follows:

A. assets and liabilities for each Balance Sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that Balance Sheet;

B. income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exchange rates; and

C. all resulting exchange differences are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity as foreign currency translation reserve for subsequent reclassification to profit or loss on disposal of such foreign operations.

(t) Accounting and reporting of information for Operating Segments

Operating segments are those components of the business whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision making body in the company to make decisions for performance assessment and resource allocation.

The reporting of segment information is the same as provided to the management for the purpose of the performance assessment and resource allocation to the segments.

Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting:

i) Segment revenue includes sales and other operational revenue directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter segment revenue.

ii) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result.

iii) Most of the centrally incurred costs are allocated to segments mainly on the basis of their respective expected segment revenue estimated at the beginning of the reported period.

iv) Income which relates to the company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in “unallocable corporate income”.

v) Segment result includes margins on inter-segment capital jobs, which are reduced in arriving at the profit before tax of the company.

vi) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the company as a whole.

vii) Segment non-cash expenses forming part of segment expenses includes the fair value of the employee stock options which is accounted as employee compensation cost [Note 1(r) supra] and is allocated to the segment.

viii) Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer prices which are either determined to yield a desired margin or agreed on a negotiated basis.

(u) Taxes on income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income tax Act 1 961, and based on the expected outcome of assessments/appeals.

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the company’s financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in computation of taxable profit and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences including the temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the company is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences to the extent that is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets relating to unabsorbed depreciation/business losses/losses under the head “capital gains” are recognised and carried forward to the extent of available taxable temporary differences or where there is convincing other evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the company expects, at the end of reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Transaction or event which is recognised outside profit or loss, either in other comprehensive income or in equity, is recorded along with the tax as applicable.

(v) Interests in Joint operations

The company as a joint operator recognises in relation to its interest in a joint operation, its share in the assets/liabilities held/ incurred jointly with the other parties of the joint arrangement. Revenue is recognised for its share of revenue from the sale of output by the joint venture. Expenses are recognised for its share of expenses incurred jointly with other parties as part of the joint arrangement.

Interests in joint operations are included in the segments to which they relate.

(w) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

Provisions are recognised only when:

a) the company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event;

b) it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and

c) a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

Provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation and when the effect of time value of money is material, the carrying amount of the provision is the present value of those cash flows. Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a provision is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

Contingent liability is disclosed in case of:

a) a present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation; and

b) a present obligation arising from past events, when no reliable estimate is possible.

Contingent assets are disclosed where an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date.

Where the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under such contract, the present obligation under the contract is recognised and measured as a provision.

(x) Commitments

Commitments are future liabilities for contractual expenditure, classified and disclosed as follows:

a) estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for;

b) uncalled liability on shares and other investments partly paid;

c) funding related commitment to subsidiary, associate and joint venture companies; and

d) other non-cancellable commitments, if any, to the extent they are considered material and relevant in the opinion of management.

Other commitments related to sales/procurements made in the normal course of business are not disclosed to avoid excessive details.

(y) Non-current assets held for sale

Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount is intended to be recovered principally through a sale (rather than through continuing use) when the asset (or disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sale of such asset (or disposal group) and the sale is highly probable and is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.

Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

(z) Statement of Cash Flows

Statement of Cash Flows is prepared segregating the cash flows into operating, investing and financing activities. Cash flow from operating activities is reported using indirect method, adjusting the net profit for the effects of:

i. changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables transactions of a non-cash nature;

ii. non-cash items such as depreciation, provisions, deferred taxes, unrealised foreign currency gains and losses, and undistributed profits of associates; and

iii. all other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.

Cash and cash equivalents (including bank balances) shown in the Statement of Cash Flows exclude items which are not available for general use as on the date of Balance Sheet.

(aa) Key sources of estimation

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires that the management of the company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates include useful lives of property, plant and equipment, Intangible assets, allowance for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, expected cost of completion of contracts, provision for rectification costs, fair value measurement etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

(ab) First time adoption of Ind AS

The company has prepared opening Balance Sheet as per Ind AS as of April 1, 201 5 (transition date) by recognising all assets and liabilities whose recognistion is required by Ind AS, derecognising items of assets or liabilities which are not permitted to be recognised by Ind AS, reclassifying items from l-GAAP to Ind AS as required, and applying Ind AS to measure the recognised assets and liabilities. The exemptions availed by the company under Ind AS 101 are as follows:

(i) The company has adopted the carrying value determined in accordance with l-GAAP for all of its property plant & equipment and investment property as deemed cost of such assets at the transition date.

(ii) Ind AS 102 Share-based Payment has not been applied to equity instruments in share-based payment transactions that vested before April 1, 201 5.

(iii) The estimates as at April 1, 201 5 and at March 31, 2016 are consistent with those made for the same dates in accordance with l-GAAP.

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