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ITC

BSE: 500875|NSE: ITC|ISIN: INE154A01025|SECTOR: Cigarettes
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Mar 16
Accounting Policy Year : Mar '17

1. Significant Accounting Policies Statement of Compliance

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013. The financial statements have also been prepared in accordance with the relevant presentation requirements of the Companies Act, 2013. The Company adopted Ind AS from 1st April, 2016.

Up to the year ended 31st March, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of previous Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. These are the Company’s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is 1st April, 2015. Details of the exceptions and optional exemptions availed by the Company and principal adjustments along with related reconciliations are detailed in Note 31 (First-time Adoption).

Basis of Preparation

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with the historical cost convention, except for certain items that are measured at fair values, as explained in the accounting policies.

Fair Value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for share-based payment transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 102 -Share-based Payment, leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17 - Leases, and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realizable value in Ind AS 2 - Inventories or value in use in Ind AS 36 - Impairment of Assets.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of the accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the year. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period; they are recognized in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Operating Cycle

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company’s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013 and Ind AS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents.

Property, Plant and Equipment - Tangible Assets

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. For this purpose, cost includes deemed cost which represents the carrying value of property, plant and equipment recognized as at 1st April, 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP Cost is inclusive of inward freight, duties and taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition. In respect of major projects involving construction, related pre-operational expenses form part of the value of assets capitalized. Expenses capitalized also include applicable borrowing costs for qualifying assets, if any. All up gradation / enhancements are charged off as revenue expenditure unless they bring similar significant additional benefits.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Depreciation of these assets commences when the assets are ready for their intended use which is generally on commissioning. Items of property, plant and equipment are depreciated in a manner that amortizes the cost (or other amount substituted for cost) of the assets after commissioning, less its residual value, over their useful lives as specified in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 on a straight line basis. Land is not depreciated.

The estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment of the Company are as follows:

Buildings 30 - 60 Years

Leasehold Improvements Shorter of lease period or estimated useful lives

Plant and Equipment 7 - 25 Years

Furniture and Fixtures 8 - 10 Years

Vehicles 8 - 10 Years

Office Equipment 5 Years

Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets or, where shorter, the term of the relevant lease.

Property, plant and equipment’s residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and changes, if any, are treated as changes in accounting estimate.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets that the Company controls and from which it expects future economic benefits are capitalized upon acquisition and measured initially:

a. for assets acquired in a business combination or by way of a government grant, at fair value on the date of acquisition/grant

b. for separately acquired assets, at cost comprising the purchase price (including import duties and non-refundable taxes) and directly attributable costs to prepare the asset for its intended use.

Internally generated assets for which the cost is clearly identifiable are capitalized at cost. Research expenditure is recognized as an expense when it is incurred. Development costs are capitalized only after the technical and commercial feasibility of the asset for sale or use has been established. Thereafter, all directly attributable expenditure incurred to prepare the asset for its intended use are recognized as the cost of such assets. Internally generated brands, websites and customer lists are not recognized as intangible assets.

The carrying value of intangible assets includes deemed cost which represents the carrying value of intangible assets recognized as at 1st April, 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP.

The useful life of an intangible asset is considered finite where the rights to such assets are limited to a specified period of time by contract or law (e.g., patents, licenses, trademarks, franchise and servicing rights) or the likelihood of technical, technological obsolescence (e.g., computer software, design, prototypes) or commercial obsolescence (e.g., lesser known brands are those to which adequate marketing support may not be provided). If, there are no such limitations, the useful life is taken to be indefinite.

Intangible assets that have finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives by the straight line method unless it is practical to reliably determine the pattern of benefits arising from the asset. An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortized.

All intangible assets are tested for impairment. Amortization expenses and impairment losses and reversal of impairment losses are taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Thus, after initial recognition, an intangible asset is carried at its cost less accumulated amortization and/or impairment losses.

The useful lives of intangible assets are reviewed annually to determine if a reset of such useful life is required for assets with finite lives and to confirm that business circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life assessment for assets so classified. Based on such review, the useful life may change or the useful life assessment may change from indefinite to finite. The impact of such changes is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate.

Impairment of Assets

Impairment loss, if any, is provided to the extent, the carrying amount of assets or cash generating units exceed their recoverable amount.

Recoverable amount is higher of an asset’s net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset or cash generating unit and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.

Impairment losses recognized in prior years are reversed when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognized no longer exist or have decreased. Such reversals are recognized as an increase in carrying amounts of assets to the extent that it does not exceed the carrying amounts that would have been determined (net of amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized in previous years.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost is calculated on weighted average method. Cost comprises expenditure incurred in the normal course of business in bringing such inventories to its present location and condition and includes, where applicable, appropriate overheads based on normal level of activity. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price less estimated costs for completion and sale.

Obsolete, slow moving and defective inventories are identified from time to time and, where necessary, a provision is made for such inventories.

Foreign Currency Transactions

The functional and presentation currency of the Company is Indian Rupee.

Transactions in foreign currency are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the transaction date. Gains/ losses arising on settlement as also on translation of monetary items are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Exchange differences arising on monetary items that, in substance, form part of the Company’s net investment in a foreign operation (having a functional currency other than Indian Rupee) are accumulated in Foreign Currency Translation Reserve.

Derivatives and Hedge Accounting

Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value and are subsequently premeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gains/losses is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of recognition in profit or loss/inclusion in the initial cost of non-financial asset depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.

The Company complies with the principles of hedge accounting where derivative contracts are designated as hedge instruments. At the inception of the hedge relationship, the Company documents the relationship between the hedge instrument and the hedged item, along with the risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking hedge transaction, which can be a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge.

(i) Fair value hedges

Changes in fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as fair value hedges are recognized in profit or loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. The change in the fair value of the designated portion of hedging instrument and the change in fair value of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the line item relating to the hedged item.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. The fair value adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item arising from the hedged risk is amortised to profit or loss from that date.

(ii) Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognized in the other comprehensive income and accumulated as ‘Cash Flow Hedging Reserve’. The gains/losses relating to the ineffective portion is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts previously recognized and accumulated in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss when the hedged item affects the Statement of Profit and Loss. However, when the hedged item results in the recognition of a non-financial asset, such gains/losses are transferred from equity (but not as reclassification adjustment) and included in the initial measurement cost of the non-financial asset.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gains/losses recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is reclassified when the underlying transaction is ultimately recognized. When an underlying transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gains/losses accumulated in equity is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Investment in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures

Investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are carried at cost less accumulated impairment, if any.

Financial instruments, Financial assets, Financial liabilities and Equity instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the relevant instrument and are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value on initial recognition of financial assets or financial liabilities. Purchase or sale of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognized on the trade date, i.e., the date when the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

Financial Assets

Recognition: Financial assets include Investments, Trade receivables, Advances, Security Deposits, Cash and cash equivalents. Such assets are initially recognized at transaction price when the Company becomes party to contractual obligations. The transaction price includes transaction costs unless the asset is being fair valued through the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Classification: Management determines the classification of an asset at initial recognition depending on the purpose for which the assets were acquired. The subsequent measurement of financial assets depends on such classification.

Financial assets are classified as those measured at:

(a) amortised cost, where the financial assets are held solely for collection of cash flows arising from payments of principal and/or interest.

(b) fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI), where the financial assets are held not only for collection of cash flows arising from payments of principal and interest but also from the sale of such assets. Such assets are subsequently measured at fair value, with unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value being recognized in other comprehensive income.

(c) fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL), where the assets are managed in accordance with an approved investment strategy that triggers purchase and sale decisions based on the fair value of such assets. Such assets are subsequently measured at fair value, with unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value being recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.

Trade receivables, Advances, Security Deposits, Cash and cash equivalents etc. are classified for measurement at amortised cost while investments may fall under any of the aforesaid classes. However, in respect of particular investments in equity instruments that would otherwise be measured at fair value through profit or loss, an irrevocable election at initial recognition may be made to present subsequent changes in fair value through other comprehensive income.

Impairment: The Company assesses at each reporting date whether a financial asset (or a group of financial assets) such as investments, trade receivables, advances and security deposits held at amortised cost and financial assets that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are tested for impairment based on evidence or information that is available without undue cost or effort. Expected credit losses are assessed and loss allowances recognized if the credit quality of the financial asset has deteriorated significantly since initial recognition.

Reclassification: When and only when the business model is changed, the Company shall reclassify all affected financial assets prospectively from the reclassification date as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income, fair value through profit or loss without restating the previously recognized gains, losses or interest and in terms of the reclassification principles laid down in the Ind AS relating to Financial Instruments.

De-recognition: Financial assets are derecognized when the right to receive cash flows from the assets has expired, or has been transferred, and the Company has transferred substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership. Concomitantly, if the asset is one that is measured at:

(a) amortized cost, the gain or loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss;

(b) fair value through other comprehensive income, the cumulative fair value adjustments previously taken to reserves are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless the asset represents an equity investment in which case the cumulative fair value adjustments previously taken to reserves is reclassified within equity.

Income Recognition: Interest income is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the right to receive dividend is established.

Financial Liabilities

Borrowings, trade payables and other financial liabilities are initially recognized at the value of the respective contractual obligations. They are subsequently measured at amortized cost. Any discount or premium on redemption /settlement is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as finance cost over the life of the liability using the effective interest method and adjusted to the liability figure disclosed in the Balance Sheet.

Financial liabilities are derecognized when the liability is extinguished, that is, when the contractual obligation is discharged, cancelled and on expiry.

Offsetting Financial Instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is included in the Balance Sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Equity Instruments

Equity instruments are recognized at the value of the proceeds, net of direct costs of the capital issue.

Revenue

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable for goods supplied and services rendered, net of returns and discounts to customers. Revenue from the sale of goods includes excise and other duties which the Company pays as a principal but excludes amounts collected on behalf of third parties, such as sales tax and value added tax.

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized when significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer, which is mainly upon delivery, the amount of revenue can be measured reliably and recovery of the consideration is probable. Revenue from services is recognized in the periods in which the services are rendered.

Government Grant

The Company may receive government grants that require compliance with certain conditions related to the Company’s operating activities or are provided to the Company by way of financial assistance on the basis of certain qualifying criteria.

Government grants are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received, and the Company will comply with the conditions attached to the grant. Accordingly, government grants:

(a) related to or used for assets are included in the Balance Sheet as deferred income and recognized as income over the useful life of the assets.

(b) related to incurring specific expenditures are taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss on the same basis and in the same periods as the expenditures incurred.

(c) by way of financial assistance on the basis of certain qualifying criteria are recognized as they become receivable.

In the unlikely event that a grant previously recognized is ultimately not received, it is treated as a change in estimate and the amount cumulatively recognized is expensed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Dividend Distribution

Dividends paid (including income tax thereon) is recognized in the period in which the interim dividends are approved by the Board of Directors, or in respect of the final dividend when approved by shareholders.

Employee Benefits

The Company makes contributions to both defined benefit and defined contribution schemes which are mainly administered through duly constituted and approved Trusts.

Provident Fund contributions are in the nature of defined contribution scheme. In respect of employees who are members of constituted and approved trusts, the Company recognizes contribution payable to such trusts as an expense including any shortfall in interest between the amount of interest realized by the investment and the interest payable to members at the rate declared by the Government of India. In respect of other employees, provident funds are deposited with the Government and recognized as expense.

The Company makes contribution to defined contribution pension plan. The contribution payable is recognized as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. The Company also makes contribution to defined benefit pension and gratuity plan. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit obligation is calculated by independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Service costs and net interest expense or income is reflected in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gain or Loss on account of remeasurements are recognized immediately through other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur.

The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated leave for which the Company records the liability based on actuarial valuation computed using projected unit credit method. These benefits are unfounded.

Actual disbursements made, under the Workers’ Voluntary Retirement Scheme are accounted as revenue expenses.

Employee Share Based Compensation

Stock Options are granted to eligible employees in accordance with the ITC Employee Stock Option Schemes (ITC ESOS”), as may be decided by the Nomination & Compensation Committee. Eligible employees for this purpose include (a) such employees of the Company including Directors and those on deputation and (b) such employees of the Company’s subsidiary companies including Managing Director / Whole time Director of a subsidiary.

Under Ind AS, the cost of ITC Stock Options (Stock Options) is recognized based on the fair value of Stock Options as on the grant date. In terms of the exemptions, the fair value of unvested Stock Options as on the date of transition have been accounted for as part of Reserves, irrespective of whether they apply to Company employees (including those on deputation) or employees of subsidiary companies. While the fair value of Stock Options granted and vesting after the transition date are recognized in profit and loss for employees of the Company (other than those out on deputation), the value of Stock Options, net of reimbursements, to employees on deputation and to employees of the wholly owned and other subsidiary companies are considered as capital contribution / investment.

The Company generally seeks reimbursement of the value of Stock Options from such companies, as applicable. It may, if so recommended by the Corporate Management Committee and approved by the Audit Committee, decide not to seek such reimbursements from:

(a) Wholly owned subsidiaries who need to conserve financial capacity to sustain their business and growth plans and to address contingencies that may arise, taking into account the economic and market conditions then prevailing and opportunities and threats in the competitive context.

(b) Other companies not covered under (a) above, who need to conserve financial capacity to sustain their business and growth plans and where the quantum of reimbursement is not material - the materiality threshold being Rs, 5 Crores for each entity for a financial year.

Leases

Leases are recognized as a finance lease whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

Company as a Lessee

Assets used under finance leases are recognized as property, plant and equipment in the Balance Sheet for an amount that corresponds to the lower of fair value and the present value of minimum lease payments determined at the inception of the lease and a liability is recognized for an equivalent amount.

The minimum lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless the payments to the less or are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases.

Company as a Less or

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Where the Company is a less or under an operating lease, the asset is capitalized within property, plant and equipment and depreciated over its useful economic life. Payments received under operating leases are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

Taxes on Income

Taxes on income comprises of current taxes and deferred taxes. Current tax in the Statement of Profit and Loss is provided as the amount of tax payable in respect of taxable income for the period using tax rates and tax laws enacted during the period, together with any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and the amounts used for taxation purposes (tax base), at the tax rates and tax laws enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for the future tax consequences to the extent it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilized.

Income tax, in so far as it relates to items disclosed under other comprehensive income or equity, are disclosed separately under other comprehensive income or equity, as applicable.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and when the deferred tax balances related to the same taxation authority. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Claims

Claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts are disclosed after a careful evaluation of the facts and legal aspects of the matter involved.

Provisions

Provisions are recognized when, as a result of a past event, the Company has a legal or constructive obligation; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation; and the amount can be reliably estimated. The amount so recognized is a best estimate of the consideration required to settle the obligation at the reporting date, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation.

In an event when the time value of money is material, the provision is carried at the present value of the cash flows estimated to settle the obligation.

Operating Segments

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision-maker (CODM). The CODM, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Corporate Management Committee.

Segments are organised based on business which have similar economic characteristics as well as exhibit similarities in nature of products and services offered, the nature of production processes, the type and class of customer and distribution methods.

Segment revenue arising from third party customers is reported on the same basis as revenue in the financial statements. Inter-segment revenue is reported on the basis of transactions which are primarily market led. Segment results represent profits before finance charges, unallocated corporate expenses and taxes.

“Unallocated Corporate Expenses” include revenue and expenses that relate to initiatives/costs attributable to the enterprise as a whole and are not attributable to segments.

Financial and Management Information Systems

The Company’s Accounting System is designed to unify the Financial and Cost Records and also to comply with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, to provide financial and cost information appropriate to the businesses and facilitate Internal Control.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

A. Judgements in applying accounting policies

The judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see note below), that the Company has made in the process of applying its accounting policies and that have a significant effect on the amounts recognized in these financial statements pertain to useful life of intangible assets. The Company is required to determine whether its intangible assets have indefinite or finite life which is a subject matter of judgement. Certain trademarks have been considered of having an indefinite useful life taking into account that there are no technical, technological or commercial risks of obsolescence or limitations under contract or law. Other trademarks have been amortized over their useful economic life. Refer notes to the financial statements.

B. Key sources of estimation uncertainty

The following are the key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year.

1. Useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets:

As described in the significant accounting policies, the Company reviews the estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets at the end of each reporting period.

2. Fair value measurements and valuation processes:

Some of the Company’s assets and liabilities are measured at fair value for financial reporting purposes. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company uses market-observable data to the extent it is available. Where Level 1 inputs are not available, the Company engages third party values, where required, to perform the valuation. Information about the valuation techniques and inputs used in determining the fair value of various assets, liabilities and share based payments are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

3. Actuarial Valuation:

The determination of Company’s liability towards defined benefit obligation to employees is made through independent actuarial valuation including determination of amounts to be recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss and in other comprehensive income. Such valuation depend upon assumptions determined after taking into account inflation, seniority, promotion and other relevant factors such as supply and demand factors in the employment market. Information about such valuation is provided in notes to the financial statements.

4. Claims, Provisions and Contingent Liabilities: The Company has ongoing litigations with various regulatory authorities and third parties. Where an outflow of funds is believed to be probable and a reliable estimate of the outcome of the dispute can be made based on management’s assessment of specific circumstances of each dispute and relevant external advice, management provides for its best estimate of the liability. Such accruals are by nature complex and can take number of years to resolve and can involve estimation uncertainty. Information about such litigations is provided in notes to the financial statements.

1. Land includes certain lands at Munger with Gross Block - Rs, 1.16 Crores (2016 - Rs, 1.16 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 1.16 Crores) which stood vested with the State of Bihar under the Bihar Land Reforms Act, 1950 for which compensation has not yet been determined.

2. Certain trademarks with a carrying value of Rs, 309.73 Crores (2016 - Rs, 309.73 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 309.73 Crores) have been considered of having an indefinite useful life taking into account that there are no technical, technological or commercial risks of obsolescence or limitations under contract or law. Other trademarks have been amortized over 10 years.

3. The amortization expense of intangible assets have been included under ‘Depreciation and amortization expense'' in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

4. The amount of expenditures recognized in the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment in the course of construction is Rs, 73.91 Crores (2016 - Rs, 45.26 Crores).

*After considering Bonus Issue

During the year Bonus Shares were allotted on 7th July, 2016 in the ratio of 1:2. Previous year figures have been restated for the purpose of computation of Earnings per share.

(ii) Expenditure incurred under Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities - Rs, 275.96 Crores (2016 - Rs, 247.50 Crores) comprising employee benefits expense of Rs, 6.75 Crores (2016 - Rs, 7.01 Crores) and other expenses of Rs, 269.21 Crores (2016 - Rs, 240.49 Crores) of which Rs, 16.80 Crores (2016 - Rs, 17.04 Crores) is accrued for payment as on 31st March, 2017. Such CSR expenditure of Rs, 275.96 Crores (2016 - Rs, 247.50 Crores) excludes Rs, 11.80 Crores (2016 - Rs, 11.43 Crores) being the excess of expenditure of salaries of CSR personnel and administrative expenses over the limit imposed of 5% of total CSR expenditure laid down under Rule 4(6) of the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014 for such expenses.

(iii) Research and Development expenses for the year amount to Rs, 134.83 Crores (2016 - Rs, 121.91 Crores).

(iv) Cost of inventory recognized as expense during the year amount to Rs, 34655.68 Crores (2016 - Rs, 31908.54 Crores).

(v) Contingent liabilities and commitments :

(a) Contingent liabilities

(i) Claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts Rs, 688.53 Crores (2016 - Rs, 581.25 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 558.25 Crores), including interest on claims, where applicable, estimated to be Rs, 195.17 Crores (2016 - Rs, 178.47 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 153.37 Crores). These comprise:

- Excise duty, VAT/sales taxes and other indirect taxes claims disputed by the Company relating to issues of applicability and classification aggregating Rs, 582.60 Crores (2016 - Rs, 471.42 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 450.01 Crores), including interest on claims, where applicable, estimated to be Rs, 185.88 Crores (2016 - Rs, 159.98 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 135.58 Crores).

- Local Authority taxes/cess/royalty on property, utilities etc. claims disputed by the Company relating to issues of applicability and determination aggregating Rs, 59.42 Crores (2016 - Rs, 73.36 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 68.79 Crores), including interest on claims, where applicable, estimated to be Rs, 4.99 Crores (2016 - Rs, 14.46 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 13.47 Crores).

- Third party claims arising from disputes relating to contracts aggregating Rs, 39.04 Crores (2016- Rs, 29.10 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 29.19 Crores), including interest on claims, where applicable, estimated to be Rs, 0.36 Crore (2016 -Rs, 0.25 Crore; 2015 - Rs, 0.14 Crore).

- Other matters Rs, 7.47 Crores (2016 - Rs, 7.37 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 10.26 Crores), including interest on other matters, where applicable, estimated to be Rs, 3.94 Crores (2016 - Rs, 3.78 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 4.18 Crores).

It is not practicable for the Company to estimate the closure of these issues and the consequential timings of cash flows, if any, in respect of the above.

(ii) Corporate Guarantee given to Yes Bank Limited for credit facility availed by Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC) outstanding - Rs, 1.30 Crores (2016 - Rs, 1.30 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 1.30 Crores).

(b) Commitments

- Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital accounts and not provided for Rs, 1990.24 Crores (2016 - Rs, 2039.83 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 1432.41 Crores).

- Uncalled liability on shares partly paid is Rs, 26.40 Crores (2016 - Rs, 26.40 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 26.40 Crores).

(vi) (a) Defined Benefit Plans/Long Term Compensated Absences : -

Description of Plans

The Company makes contributions to both Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plans for qualifying employees. These Plans are administered through approved Trusts, which operate in accordance with the Trust Deeds, Rules and applicable Statutes. The concerned Trusts are managed by Trustees who provide strategic guidance with regard to the management of their investments and liabilities and also periodically review their performance.

Provident Fund, Pension and Gratuity Benefits are funded and Leave Encashment Benefits are unfunded in nature. The Defined Benefit Pension Plans are based on employees'' pensionable remuneration and length of service. Under the Provident Fund, Gratuity and Leave Encashment Schemes, employees are entitled to receive lump sum benefits.

The liabilities arising in the Defined Benefit Schemes are determined in accordance with the advice of independent, professionally qualified actuaries, using the projected unit credit method at the year end. The Company makes regular contributions to these Employee Benefit Plans. Additional contributions are made to these plans as and when required based on actuarial valuation. Some Group companies also participate in these Plans. These participating Group companies make contributions to the Plans for their respective employees on a uniform basis and each entity ascertains their obligation through actuarial valuation. The net Defined benefit cost is recognized by these companies in their respective Financial Statements.

Risk Management

The Defined Benefit Plans expose the Company to risk of actuarial deficit arising out of investment risk, interest rate risk and salary cost inflation risk.

Investment Risks: This may arise from volatility in asset values due to market fluctuations and impairment of assets due to credit losses. These Plans primarily invest in debt instruments such as Government securities and highly rated corporate bonds - the valuation of which is inversely proportional to the interest rate movements.

Interest Rate Risk: The present value of Defined Benefit Plans liability is determined using the discount rate based on the market yields prevailing at the end of reporting period on Government bonds. A decrease in yields will increase the fund liabilities and vice-versa.

Salary Cost Inflation Risk: The present value of the Defined Benefit Plan liability is calculated with reference to the future salaries of participants under the Plan. Increase in salary due to adverse inflationary pressures might lead to higher liabilities.

These Plans have a relatively balanced mix of investments in order to manage the above risks. The investment strategy is designed based on the interest rate scenario, liquidity needs of the Plans and pattern of investment as prescribed under various statutes.

The Trustees regularly monitor the funding and investments of these Plans. Risk mitigation systems are in place to ensure that the health of the portfolio is regularly reviewed and investments do not pose any significant risk of impairment. Periodic audits are conducted to ensure adequacy of internal controls. Pension obligation of the employees is secured by purchasing annuities thereby de-risking the Plans from future payment obligation.

(vii) Micro, Small and Medium scale business entities:

A sum of Rs, 38.54 Crores is payable to Micro and Small Enterprises as at 31st March, 2017 (2016 - Rs, 34.13 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 24.56 Crores). The above amount comprise of Rs, 28.98 Crores (2016 - Rs, 32.92 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 21.91 Crores) on account of trade payable and Rs, 9.56 Crores (2016 - Rs, 1.21 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 2.65 Crores) on account of other current liabilities. There are no Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, to whom the Company owes dues, which are outstanding for more than 45 days during the year and also as at 31st March, 2017. This information as required to be disclosed under the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 has been determined to the extent such parties have been identified on the basis of information available with the Company.

(ix) The Company''s significant leasing arrangements are in respect of operating leases for land and building premises (residential, office, stores, go downs etc.). These leasing arrangements which are not non-cancellable range between 11 months and 9 years generally, or longer, and are usually renewable by mutual consent on mutually agreeable terms. The aggregate lease rentals payable are charged as ‘Rent'' under Note 25.

(x) Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 on 17th March, 2017 notifying the amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows'' and Ind AS 102, ‘Share-based payment''. These amendments are applicable for annual periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2017. The Company expects that there will be no material impact on the financial statements resulting from the implementation of these standards.

(xi) Under the terms of the Joint Venture Agreement (JVA), Logix Developers Private Limited (LDPL) was to develop a luxury hotel-cum-service apartment complex. However, Logix Estates Private Ltd., Noida, the JV partner communicated its intention to explore alternative development plans and did not contribute its share of the cash call made by LDPL in June 2014. The resultant deadlock has stalled the project. The Company''s petition, praying for a direction to the JV partner to act in accordance with the Articles of Association of LDPL and complete the project or for appropriate directions for the company to exit from the JV in terms of the JVA, is pending before the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT). The JV partner has also filed a petition before the Hon''ble Delhi High Court for winding up the JV company, which has since been transferred to the NCLT and is pending.

* Segment Liabilities of FMCG - Cigarettes is before considering Rs, 629.83 Crores (2016 - Rs, 651.54 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 629.98 Crores) in respect of disputed taxes, the recovery of which has been stayed or where States’ appeals are pending before Courts. These have been included under ‘Unallocated Corporate Liabilities’.

**Includes Rs, 541.21 Crores (2016 - Rs, 541.21 Crores; 2015 - Rs, 515.44 Crores) towards payment to IFCI Limited and applicable stamp duty for purchase of a five star hotel resort in Goa operating under the name Park Hyatt Goa Resort & Spa and IFCI Limited issued required sale certificate in favour of the Company. The erstwhile owners of the property thereafter challenged the sale. By its judgment dated 23.03.2016, the Bombay High Court set aside the sale and directed IFCI Limited to refund the sale consideration to the Company. The Company and IFCI Limited have approached the Hon’ble Supreme Court against the High Court judgment. The Hon’ble Supreme Court by its order dated 22.04.2016 directed maintenance of status quo and that the amount paid by ITC shall remain with IFCI Limited until further orders. The matter is pending before the Hon’ble Supreme Court. The amount of Rs, 515.44 Crores and the stamp duty paid in 2015-16 amounting to Rs, 25.77 Crores, was adjusted in 2015-16 from Capital Work In Progress and reflected in Capital Advances (Refer Note 3B and Note 7).

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