The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost
convention in accordance with the applicable Accounting Standards and
the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.
b) Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements require the management of the
Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported
balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the
contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and
the reported amount of income and expenses during the year. Examples of
such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, employee
benefits, provision for income taxes, useful life of depreciable fixed
assets and provision for impairment.
c) Fixed Assets
Fixed assets are stated at cost (or valuation as applicable) less
depreciation. Cost includes expenses incidental to the installation of
the assets and attributable borrowing costs. Cost also includes
exchange differences arising on reporting of long term foreign currency
monetary items at rates different from those at which they were
initially recorded during the period or reported in previous financial
statements, insofar as they relate to acquisition of a depreciable
Valuation of freehold land and leasehold rights on properties situated
at Mumbai, Bangalore and Goa was carried out during March 2009. The
fixed assets of Goa were initially revalued in the year 2001 and that
of Mumbai in the year 2004. Valuation was carried out in all the cases
by professional valuers, the basis of valuation being realisable value
as determined by the valuer.
Revalued fixed assets are stated based on the revaluation and all other
fixed assets are stated at cost. Additions on account of valuation are
credited to Revaluation Reserve.
d) Depreciation and Amortisation
Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight-line method at
rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.
Depreciation on additions / deletions during the year are provided on
pro-rata basis. Assets purchased / installed during the year costing
less than Rs. 5,000 each are fully depreciated. Premium and other
capitalised cost relating to leasehold land is amortised over the
period of lease. Revaluation Reserve is withdrawn to the extent of
incremental depreciation on account of revaluation.
Buildings constructed on leasehold land are depreciated at the
applicable rate on the assumption that the lease will be renewed in the
Depreciation on Computer Software is provided over a period of six
years. License fee and Franchise fee are amortised over five years.
Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted / fair
value. Long- term investments are carried at cost.
Inventories are valued at lower of cost (weighted average basis) or net
g) Employee benefit
i) Post-employment benefit plans
Contribution to defined contributory retirement benefit schemes are
recognised as an expense when employees have rendered services
entitling them to contributions.
For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is
determined using the Project Unit Credit Method, with actuarial
valuation being carried out at each Balance Sheet Date. Actuarial gains
and losses are recognized in full in the profit and loss account for
the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized
immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and
otherwise it is amortized on straight-line basis over the average
period until the benefits become eligible for being vested.
ii) Short–term employee benefits
The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be
paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised
during the period when the employee renders the service. These
benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave. iii)
Long-term employee benefits Compensated absences which are not expected
to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the
employee renders the related services are recognized as a liability at
the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the Balance
h) Recognition of income and Expenditure
Revenue/Incomes and Costs/Expenditures are accounted on accrual.
i) Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition and
construction of qualifying assets are capitalised. A qualifying asset
is an asset that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get
ready for its intended use. Gains/Losses (net) on settlement of
derivative contracts where they relate to the acquisition or
construction of fixed assets are adjusted to the carrying cost of such
(i) Provision for current taxation has been made in accordance with the
Income Tax laws applicable to the assessment year.
(ii) Wealth Tax for the year has been provided as required under the
Wealth Tax Act and Rules, 1957.
(iii) Deferred tax is recognized on timing difference being the
difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates
in one period and is capable of reversal in one or more subsequent
periods. Where there is unabsorbed depreciation, or carry forward
losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual
certainty of realisation of such assets.
(iv) Minium Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only
when and to the extent there is covincing evidence that the Company
will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Such asset is
reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and the carrying amount is written
down to the extent there is no longer a convincing evidence that the
Company will be liable to pay normal income tax during the specified
k) Impairment of assets
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date,
if there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication
exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated. An
impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of the
assets exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is
greater of the net selling price or value in use. In assessing value in
use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present
value, based on an appropriate discounting factor.
After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying
amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. A previously
recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on
changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal
is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by
charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.
l) Foreign Currency Transaction
Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the rates of exchange
prevailing on the date of the transactions.
In line with option given by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs vide
Notification No G.S.R.225 (E) dated 31st March, 2009, the exchange
differences arising on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary
items at rates different from those at which they were initially
recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial
statements, in so far as they relate to acquisition of a depreciable
capital asset, are added to or deducted from the cost of the asset and
depreciated over the balance life of the asset, and in other cases are
accumulated in ''Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference
Account'' and amortized over the balance period of such long-term asset/
liability but not beyond 31st March, 2020, by recognising income or
expense in each of the periods except the exchange differences which
are regarded as adjustment to interest costs in terms of paragraph 4(e)
of Accounting Standard AS (16) Borrowing costs.
All other monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency as at
Balance Sheet date are translated at rates prevailing at the year-end
and the resultant net gains or losses are recognized as income or
expense in the year in which they arise.
m) Assets taken on lease
In respect of operating lease transactions, the assets are not
capitalised in the books of the Company and the lease payments are
charged to the Profit and Loss Account.
n) Accounting for Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent
A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as
a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources
will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a
reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to present
value and are determined as best estimates required to settle the
obligation at the Balance Sheet date. Contingent Liability is
disclosed in case of (i) A present obligation arising from past events,
when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required
to settle that obligation; (ii) A present obligation when no reliable
estimate is possible; and (iii) A possible obligation arising from past
events where the probability of
outflow of resources is remote. Contingent Assets are not recognized
in the financial statements.
o) Government Grants
Revenue Grants are recognized in the Profit and Loss account in
accordance with the related scheme and in the period in which these are