Note 1 Significant Accounting Policies
The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention in accordance with the
applicable Accounting Standards and the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.
b) Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements require the management of the Company to make estimates and
assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the
contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of income and
expenses during the year. Examples of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, employee
benefits, provision for income taxes, useful life of depreciable fixed assets and provision for
c) Fixed assets
Fixed assets are stated at cost (or valuation as applicable) less depreciation. Cost includes expenses
incidental to the installation of the assets and attributable borrowing costs. Cost also includes exchange
differences arising on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary items at rates different from those
at which they were initially recorded during the period or reported in previous financial statements, in so
far as they relate to acquisition of a depreciable capital asset.
Revalued fixed assets are stated based on the revaluation and all other fixed assets are stated at cost.
Additions on account of valuation are credited to Revaluation Reserve.
d) Depreciation and amortization
Effective 1st April 2014, the Company depreciates its fixed assets over the useful life in the manner
prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, as against the earlier practice of depreciating at the
rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.
Based on technical evaluation, the useful life of continuous process plant other than windmill has been
estimated as 15 years (on a single shift basis), which is different from that prescribed in Schedule II of
Depreciation on additions / deletions during the year are provided on pro-rata basis. Assets purchased /
installed during the year costing less than Rs. 5,000 each are fully depreciated.
Premium and other capitalized cost relating to leasehold land is amortized over the period of lease.
Buildings constructed on leasehold land are depreciated at the applicable rate on the assumption that the
lease will be renewed in the normal course. Depreciation on computer software is provided over a period of six
years. License fee and franchise fee are amortized over five years.
Depreciation on revalued portion is withdrawn from revaluation reserve till 31st March, 2014 and charged
to profit and loss account for the subsequent period.
Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted / fair value. Long-term investments are
carried at cost. However provision for diminution is made to recognize a decline, other than temporary, in
the value of investments, such reduction being determined and made for each investment individually.
Inventories are valued at lower of cost (weighted average basis) or net realizable value.
g) Employee benefit
i) Post-employment benefit plans
Contribution to defined contributory retirement benefit schemes are recognized as an expense when
employees have rendered services entitling them to contributions.
For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Project Unit Credit
Method, with actuarial valuation being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are
recognized in full in the profit and loss account for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is
recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise amortized on
straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become eligible for being vested.
ii) Short-term employee benefits
The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services
rendered by employees is recognized during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits
include compensated absences such as paid annual leave.
iii) Long-term employee benefits
Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in
which the employee renders the related services are recognized as a liability at the present value of the
defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date.
h) Recognition of income and expenditure
Revenue/incomes and costs/expenditures are accounted on accrual.
i) Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition and construction of qualifying assets
are capitalized. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get
ready for its intended use. Gains/losses (net) on settlement of derivative contracts where they relate to the
acquisition or construction of fixed assets are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.
(i) Provision for current taxation has been made in accordance with the Income Tax laws applicable to
the assessment year.
(ii) Deferred tax is recognized on timing difference being the difference between taxable income and
accounting income that originates in one period and is capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods.
Where there is unabsorbed depreciation, or carry forward losses, deferred tax assets are recognized only if
there is virtual certainty of realization of such assets.
(iii) Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT”) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent
there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Such
asset is reviewed at each balance sheet date and the carrying amount is written down to the extent there is
no longer a convincing evidence that the Company will be liable to pay normal income tax during the specified
k) Impairment of assets
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date, to assess any indication of
impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated. An impairment
loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of the assets exceed its recoverable amount. The recoverable
amount is greater of the net selling price or value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future
cash flows are discounted to their present value, based on an appropriate discounting factor.
After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its
remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes
in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that
would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.
l) Foreign currency transaction
Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of the
In line with the option given by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs vide Notification No G.S.R.225 (E)
dated 31st March 2009, the exchange differences arising on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary
items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in
previous financial statements, in so far as they relate to acquisition of a depreciable capital asset, are
added to or deducted from the cost of the asset and will be depreciated over the balance life of the asset,
and in other cases are accumulated in ''Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account'' and
amortized over the balance period of such long-term asset/liability but not beyond 31st March 2020, by
recognizing income or expense in each of the periods except the exchange differences which are regarded as
adjustment to interest costs in terms of paragraph 4(e) of Accounting Standard AS (16) Borrowing costs.
All other monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency as at balance sheet date are translated at
rates prevailing at the year-end and the resultant net gains or losses are recognized as income or expense in
the year in which they arise. m) Assets taken on lease
In respect of operating lease transactions, the assets are not capitalized in the books of the Company
and the lease payments are charged to the profit and loss account.
n) Accounting for provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets
A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is
probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a
reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to present value and are determined as best
estimates required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. Contingent Liability is disclosed in
(i) a present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of
resources will be required to settle that obligation;
(ii) a present obligation when no reliable estimate is possible; and
(iii) a possible obligation arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is
Contingent Assets are not recognized in the financial statements. o) Government Grants
Revenue Grants are recognized in the profit and loss account in accordance with the related scheme and in
the period in which these are accrued.