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HCL Technologies

BSE: 532281|NSE: HCLTECH|ISIN: INE860A01027|SECTOR: Computers - Software
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Jun 15
Accounting Policy Year : Mar '17

1. Summary of significant accounting policies

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended).

The Company uses the Indian Rupee (‘Rs.’) as its reporting currency.

For years up to and including the year ended 31 March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with Indian GAAP (“Previous GAAP”), including accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014.

These financial statements, being the Company’s first Ind AS financial statements, are covered by Ind AS 101, “First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards”. An explanation of the effect of the transition from Previous GAAP to Ind AS on the Company’s equity and profit is provided in Note 4.

These financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual and going concern basis except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value:

a) Derivative financial instruments,

b) Certain financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments),

The preparation of these financial statements has resulted in changes to the Company’s accounting policies as compared to the most recent annual financial statements prepared under Previous GAAP. Accounting policies have been applied consistently to all years presented in the financial statements including the preparation of the (Ind AS) opening balance sheet as at 1 July, 2015 (‘Transition date’) for the purpose of transition to (Ind AS) and as required by Ind AS 101.

Section 2(41) of the Companies Act, 2013 requires all companies to have their financial year ending on 31 March. The Company adopted this change from the previous financial year and accordingly, the previous financial year of the Company is for a nine months period from 1 July 2015 to 31 March 2016 (hereinafter referred as “Year ended 31 March, 2016”).

Since the transition date for Ind AS is 1 July 2015 and previous financial year is for nine months, the same is not comparable.

(b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and other comprehensive income (OCI) that are reported and disclosed in the financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events, historical experience, actions that the Company may undertake in the future and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Significant estimates and assumptions are used for, but not limited to, accounting for costs expected to be incurred to complete performance under fixed price projects, allowance for uncollectible accounts receivables, accrual of warranty costs, income taxes, valuation of share-based compensation, future obligations under employee benefit plans, the useful lives of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, impairment of goodwill, and other contingencies and commitments. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the year in which the changes are made. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

(c) Business combinations and goodwill

In accordance with the provisions of Ind AS 101 related to first time adoption, the Company has elected to apply Ind AS accounting for business combinations prospectively from the transition date. As such, Previous GAAP balances relating to business combinations entered into before that date, including goodwill, have been carried forward (please refer note 4 below).

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquisition is the aggregate of the consideration transferred measured at fair value at the acquisition date. Acquisition related costs are expensed as incurred.

Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the acquirer is recognized at fair value at the acquisition date. Contingent consideration classified as financial liability is measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognized for non-controlling interest, and any previous interest held, over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If the fair value of the net assets acquired is in excess of the aggregate consideration transferred, the excess is recognized as capital reserve after reassessing the fair values of the net assets.

(d) Foreign currency and translation

The financial statements of the Company are presented in Indian Rupee (‘) which is also the Company’s functional currency. For each foreign operation, the Company determines the functional currency which is its respective local currency.

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date of the transaction. Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated to the relevant functional currency at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of the initial transaction. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined.

Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the year in which the transaction is settled. Revenue, expenses and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.

The translation of foreign operations from respective functional currency into INR (the reporting currency) for assets and liabilities is performed using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and for revenue, expenses and cash flows is performed using an appropriate daily weighted average exchange rate for the respective years. The exchange differences arising on translation are reported as a component of ‘other comprehensive income (loss)’. On disposal of a foreign operation, the component of OCI relating to that particular foreign operation is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

(e) Fair value measurement

The Company records certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis. The Company determines fair value based on the price it would receive to sell an asset or pay to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date and in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability.

The Company holds certain fixed income securities, equity securities and derivatives, which must be measured using the guidance for fair value hierarchy and related valuation methodologies. The guidance specifies a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to each measurement are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect the Company’s assumptions about current market conditions. The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The prescribed fair value hierarchy and related valuation methodologies are as follows:

Level 1 - Quoted inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

Level 2 - Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active and model-derived valuations, in which all significant inputs are directly or indirectly observable in active markets.

Level 3 - Valuations derived from valuation techniques, in which one or more significant inputs are unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity.

In accordance with Ind AS 113, assets and liabilities are to be measured based on the following valuation techniques:

a) Market approach - Prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities.

b) Income approach - Converting the future amounts based on market expectations to its present value using the discounting method.

c) Cost approach - Replacement cost method.

Certain assets are measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis. The assets consist primarily of non-financial assets such as goodwill and intangible assets. Goodwill and intangible assets recognized in business combinations are measured at fair value initially and subsequently when there is an indicator of impairment, the impairment is recognized.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant who would use the asset in its highest and best use.

(f) Revenue recognition

Contracts involving provision of services

Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, services have been rendered, the fee is determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. Contracts can be primarily categorized as time-and-material or fixed price contracts.

Time-and-material contracts

Revenue with respect to time-and-material contracts is recognized as the related services are performed.

Fixed Price contracts

Revenue related to contracts providing maintenance and support services, is recognized over the term of the contract.

Revenue from technology integration and complex network building contracts is recognized in accordance with the Percentage-Of-Completion (POC) method. Under the POC method, progress towards completion is measured based on either achievement of specified contract milestones, cost incurred as a proportion of estimated total cost or other measures of progress when available. If circumstances arise that change the original estimates of revenues, costs, or extent of progress towards completion, revisions are made to the estimates. These revisions may result in increase or decrease in estimated revenues or costs, and such revisions are reflected in income in the year in which the circumstances that gave rise to the revision become known to the management. If at any time these estimates indicate that the contract will be unprofitable, the entire estimated loss for the remainder of the contract is recorded immediately.

Revenue related to other fixed price contracts is recognized in accordance with the Percentage of Completion method (POC). The cost incurred on the projects is used to measure progress towards completion. Costs are recorded as incurred over the contract period. Any revision in cost to complete would result in increase or decrease in revenue and income and such changes are recorded in the year in which they are identified Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on contracts-in-progress are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current cost estimates. Contract losses are determined to be the amount by which the estimated total cost to complete exceeds the estimated total revenues that will be generated by the contract and are included in Cost of services and classified in other accrued liabilities.

In arrangements involving sharing of customer revenues, revenue is recognized when the amounts are known and the right to receive is established. Incremental revenue from existing contracts arising on future sales to the customers is recognized when it is earned and collectability is reasonably assured.

Revenues from unit-priced contracts are recognized as transactions are processed, based on objective measures of output.

Revenue from product sales are shown net of sales tax and applicable discounts and allowances. Revenue related to product with installation services that are critical to the product is recognized when installation of product at customer site is completed and accepted by the customer. If the revenue for a delivered item is not recognized for non-receipt of acceptance from the customer, the cost of the delivered item is also deferred. Revenue from maintenance services is recognized ratably over the period of the contract.

Multiple-element arrangements

When a sales arrangement contains multiple elements, such as services, hardware and software products and licenses, revenue for each element is determined based on its fair value.

Revenue recognition for delivered elements is limited to the amount that is not contingent on the future delivery of products or services, future performance obligations or subject to customer-specified return or refund privileges.

Revenue from activities in transition services not having standalone value in outsourcing arrangements is deferred and recognized over the period of the arrangement. Direct and incremental costs in relation to such an arrangement are also deferred to the extent of revenue. Certain upfront nonrecurring contract acquisition costs incurred in the initial phases of outsourcing contracts are deferred and amortized usually on a straight line basis, over the term of the contract unless revenues are earned and obligations are fulfilled in a different pattern. The undiscounted cash flows from the arrangement are periodically estimated and compared with the unamortized costs. If the unamortized costs exceed the undiscounted cash flow, a loss is recognized.

In instances when revenue is derived from sales of third-party vendor services, material or licenses, revenue is recorded on a gross basis when the Company is a principal to the transaction and net of costs when the Company is acting as an agent between the customer and the vendor. Several factors are considered to determine whether the Company is a principal or an agent, most notably whether the Company is the primary obligor to the customer, has established its own pricing, and has inventory and credit risks.

Revenue is recognized net of discounts and allowances, value-added tax and service tax, and includes reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses, with the corresponding out-of-pocket expenses included in cost of revenues.

Revenue from financing leases is recognized when risk of loss has been transferred to the client and there are no unfulfilled obligations that affect the final acceptance of the arrangement by the client. Revenue from operating leases is accounted on a straight-line basis as service revenue over the rental period. Interest attributable to financing leases included therein is recognized on an accrual basis using the effective interest method.

Interest income

Interest income for all financial instruments measured at amortized cost is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability. When calculating the EIR, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss.

(g) Income taxes

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax.

Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in equity. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Provision for income tax includes the impact of provisions established for uncertain income tax positions, as well as the related interest and penalties.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred taxes which originate during the tax holiday period are reversed after the tax holiday period. For this purpose, reversal of timing differences is determined using first in first out method.

Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the year that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized.

Tax benefits acquired as part of a business combination, but not satisfying the criteria for separate recognition at that date, are recognized subsequently if new information about facts and circumstances change. The adjustment is either treated as a reduction in goodwill (as long as it does not exceed goodwill) if it was incurred during the measurement period or recognized in the statement of profit and loss

(h) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. The Company identifies and determines separate useful lives for each major component of the property, plant and equipment, if they have a useful life that is materially different from that of the asset as a whole.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of property, plant and equipment is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard or period of performance. All other expenses on existing property, plant and equipment, including day-to-day repairs, maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Property, plant and equipment under construction and cost of assets not ready for use at the year-end are disclosed as capital work- in- progress.

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is provided on the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, as determined by the management. Depreciation is charged on a pro-rata basis for assets purchased / sold during the year.

The management’s estimates of the useful lives of various assets for computing depreciation are as follows:

The useful lives as given above best represent the period over which the management expects to use these assets, based on technical assessment. The estimated useful lives for these assets are therefore different from the useful lives prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

(i) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.

Intangible assets are amortized over the useful life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting year. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortization expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

The intangible assets are amortized over the estimated useful life of the assets as mentioned below except certain Licensed IPRs which include the right to modify, enhance or exploit are amortized in proportion to the expected benefits over the useful life which could range up to 15 years:

(j) Research and development costs

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditure, on an individual project, is recognized as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate:

- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

- Its intention to complete and its ability and intention to use or sell the asset

- How the asset will generate future economic benefits

- The availability of resources to complete the asset

- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development

Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the cost model is applied requiring the asset to be carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortized over the period of expected future benefit. Amortization expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually.

(k) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs also include exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.

(l) Leases

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Company as a lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the year in which they are earned.

Leases in which the Company transfers substantially all the risk and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as finance leases. Assets given under finance lease are recognized as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the leased assets. After initial recognition, the Company apportions lease rentals between the principal repayment and interest income so as to achieve a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the finance leases. The interest income is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal cost, brokerage cost etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(m) Inventory

Stock-in-trade, stores and spares are valued at the lower of the cost or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Cost of stock-in-trade procured for specific projects is assigned by identifying individual costs of each item. Cost of stock in trade, that are interchangeable and not specific to any project and cost of stores and spare parts are determined using the weighted average cost formula.

(n) Impairment of non-financial assets

Goodwill

Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis and whenever there is an indication that goodwill may be impaired, relying on a number of factors including operating results, business plans and future cash flows. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to the Company’s cash generating units (CGU) expected to benefit from the synergies arising from the business combination. A CGU is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or group of assets. Impairment occurs when the carrying amount of a CGU including the goodwill, exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the CGU. The recoverable amount of a CGU is the higher of its fair value less cost to sell and its value-in-use. Value-in-use is the present value of future cash flows expected to be derived from the CGU. Total impairment loss of a CGU is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of goodwill allocated to the CGU and then to the other assets of the CGU, pro-rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the CGU.

An impairment loss on goodwill recognized in the statement of profit and loss is not reversed in the subsequent period. Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in the statement of profit and loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset.

(o) Provisions

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows.

(p) Retirement and other employee benefits

i. Provident fund: Employees of the Company receive benefits under the provident fund, a defined benefit plan. The employee and employer each make monthly contributions to the plan. A portion of the contribution is made to the provident fund trust managed by the Company or Government administered provident fund; while the balance contribution is made to the Government administered pension fund. For the contribution made by the Company to the provident fund trust managed by the Company, the Company has an obligation to fund any shortfall on the yield of the Trust’s investments over the administered interest rates. The liability is actuarially determined (using the projected unit credit method) at the end of the year. The funds contributed to the Trust are invested in specific securities as mandated by law and generally consist of federal and state government bonds, debt instruments of government-owned corporations and other eligible market securities.

ii. In respect of superannuation, a defined contribution plan for applicable employees, the Company contributes to a scheme administered on its behalf by an insurance company and such contributions for each year of service rendered by the employees are charged to the statement of profit and loss. The Company has no further obligations to the superannuation plan beyond its contributions.

iii. Gratuity liability: The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit plan (the “Gratuity Plan”) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s base salary and the tenure of employment (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lacs per employee). The liability is actuarially determined (using the projected unit credit method) at the end of each year. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through other comprehensive income in the year in which they occur.

In respect to certain employees in India, the Company contributes towards gratuity liabilities to the Gratuity Fund Trust. Trustees of the Company administer contributions made to the Trust and contributions are invested in a scheme with Life Insurance Corporation of India as permitted by law.

iv. Compensated absences: The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The employees can carry forward up to the specified portion of the unutilized accumulated compensated absences and utilize it in future periods or receive cash at retirement or termination of employment. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation (using the projected unit credit method) based on the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. The expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the absences occur. Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

v. State Plans: The contribution to State Plans, a defined contribution plan namely Employee State Insurance Fund and Employees’ Pension Scheme for the Company are charged to the statement of profit and loss as and when employees render related services.

(q) Equity settled stock based compensation

Stock-based compensation represents the cost related to stock-based awards granted to employees. The Company measures stock-based compensation cost at grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award and recognizes the cost (net of estimated forfeitures) on a straight line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award, as if award was in substance, multiple awards. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The cost is recorded under the head employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss with corresponding increase in “Share Based Payment Reserve”.

(r) Financial Instruments

A financial instrument is a contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

i. Financial assets

All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets (other than financial assets at fair value through profit or loss) are added to the fair value measured on initial recognition of financial asset. Purchase and sale of financial assets are accounted for at trade date.

Cash and short-term deposits

Cash and short-term deposits in the balance sheet comprise cash in banks and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Financial instruments at amortized cost

A financial instrument is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. This category includes cash and bank balances, loans, unbilled revenue, trade and other receivables.

Financial instrument at Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income (OCI)

A financial instrument is classified and measured at fair value through OCI if both of the following criteria are met:

a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest.

Financial instruments included within the OCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in OCI. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from OCI to statement of profit and loss.

Financial instrument at Fair Value through Profit and Loss

Any financial instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, is classified at fair value through profit and loss. Financial instruments included in the fair value through profit and loss category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Equity investments

Equity investments in subsidiaries are measured at cost.

Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is primarily derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset.

Impairment of financial assets

The Company recognizes loss allowances using the expected credit loss (ECL) model for the financial assets which are not fair valued through profit and loss. Lifetime ECL allowance is recognized for trade receivables with no significant financing component. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case they are measured at lifetime ECL. The amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

ii. Financial liabilities

All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade payables, borrowings including bank overdrafts and other payables.

After initial recognition, financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.

Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires.

iii. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

Foreign exchange forward contracts and options are purchased to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates associated with forecast transactions denominated in certain foreign currencies.

The Company recognizes all derivatives as assets or liabilities measured at their fair value. Changes in fair value for derivatives not designated in a hedge accounting relationship are marked to market at each reporting date and the related gains (losses) are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as ‘foreign exchange gains (losses)’.

The foreign exchange forward contracts and options in respect of forecast transactions which meet the hedging criteria are designated as cash flow hedges. Changes in the derivative fair values (net of tax) that are designated as effective cash flow hedges are deferred and recorded in the hedging reserve account as a component of accumulated ‘other comprehensive income (loss)’ until the hedged transaction occurs and are then recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The ineffective portion of hedging derivatives is immediately recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

In respect of derivatives designated as hedges, the Company formally documents all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. The Company also formally assesses both at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, whether each derivative is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item.

Hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively from the last testing date when (1) it is determined that the derivative financial instrument is no longer effective in offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of the underlying exposure being hedged; (2) the derivative financial instrument matures or is sold, terminated or exercised; or (3) it is determined that designating the derivative financial instrument as a hedge is no longer appropriate. When hedge accounting is discontinued the deferred gains or losses on the cash flow hedge remain in ‘other comprehensive income (loss)’ until the forecast transaction occurs. Any further change in the fair value of the derivative financial instrument is recognized in current year earnings.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

(s) Dividend

Final dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is recognized upon approval by the shareholders who have the right to decrease but not increase the amount of dividend recommended by the Board of Directors. Interim dividends are recognized on declaration by the Board of Directors.

(t) Earnings per share (EPS)

Basic EPS amounts are computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

Diluted EPS amounts are computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The diluted potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as at the beginning of the year, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each year presented.

(u) Recently issued accounting pronouncements

On 17 March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA), notified Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, making amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’.

The amendment requires entities to disclose changes arising from non-cash transactions in addition to changes from financing cash flows arising from financial activities. The amendment also suggests providing of reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.

The amendment is effective for the annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 April, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this amendment will have on its financial statements and the implementation approach to be used.

Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited
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